Post-Deportation Risks: Criminalized Departure and Risks for Returnees in Countries of Origin (2015, Charlotte Blondel, Marie Conciatori, Nausicaa Preiss, Meritxell Sayos Monras, Suzanne Seiller, Janine Uhlmannsiek )

Following the recent crisis in the Mediterranean Sea, the European Commission presented on May 15th 2015 a new European Agenda centred on the present challenges of global migration. As the High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the Commission stated, “with this agenda we confirm and broaden our cooperation with the countries of origin and transit in order to save lives, clamp down on smuggling networks and protect those in need”. For security purposes, the EU promoted readmission agreements with third countries and increased the role of FRONTEX. In the future, the EU will seek to increase collaborations with countries of origin, amongst others by increasing and facilitating forced returns.

Migration policies in the European Union (EU) do not only affect people in member states but also in countries of origin where migrants attempt to cross European borders. Yet the right to leave is enshrined by the article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human rights, the article 12 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and other international treaties, such as the European Convention on Human Rights (article 2.2, Protocol 4, 1963). When regulating migration, European responsibilities for the respect of human rights expand its borders. This country catalogue seeks to illuminate and raise awareness about the human insecurities that failed migrants can face in the hands of state authorities upon their return to their countries of nationality. With failed migrants, this project understands deportees, non-admitted travellers and rejected asylum seekers. The project focused in particular on returns from the Schengen area.