Rights and Reintegrating Deported Migrants for National Development: The Jamaican Model (Bernard Headley & Dragan Milovanovic, Social Justice, 43.1, 2016).
Each year, the US, the UK, and Canada together deport hundreds of thousands of people. Under President Barack Obama, US deportations were on track to hit a record two million by the end of 2014-nearly the same number of persons deported between 1892 and 1997 (New York Times 2013). In 2013, 50,741 persons were deported from the UK, or they departed voluntarily after initiation of removal proceedings against them, for an increase of 15 percent over the number for 2012, and doubling the number reported for 2011. And Canada has deported more than 10,000 persons every year since 2004. The countries of Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, and Guyana annually receive proportionately the largest numbers of Caribbean nationals deported from the UK, the US, and Canada. Between 1990 and 2005, report Barnes and Seepersad (2008), Jamaica received a total of 19,418 of its migrant citizens who were deported because they had incurred a “criminal” infraction in the United States; another 3,490 came from Canada and 8,906 came from the UK.