Below, you will find a selection of books on deportation organized in reverse chronological order.
|TITLE (and link)||AUTHOR||YEAR||DESCRIPTION|
|Deportation:The Origins of U.S. Policy||Torrie Hester||2017||Before 1882, the U.S. federal government had never formally deported anyone, but that year an act of Congress made Chinese workers the first group of immigrants eligible for deportation. Over the next forty years, lawmakers and judges expanded deportable categories to include prostitutes, anarchists, the sick, and various kinds of criminals. The history of that lengthening list shaped the policy options U.S. citizens continue to live with into the present. Deportation covers the uncertain beginnings of American deportation policy and recounts the halting and uncoordinated steps that were taken as it emerged from piecemeal actions in Congress and courtrooms across the country to become an established national policy by the 1920s. Usually viewed from within the nation, deportation policy also plays a part in geopolitics; deportees, after all, have to be sent somewhere. Studying deportations out of the United States as well as the deportation of U.S. citizens back to the United States from abroad, Torrie Hester illustrates that U.S. policy makers were part of a global trend that saw officials from nations around the world either revise older immigrant removal policies or create new ones. |
A history of immigration policy in the United States and the world, Deportation chronicles the unsystematic emergence of what has become an internationally recognized legal doctrine, the far-reaching impact of which forever altered what it means to be an immigrant and a citizen.
|Citizenship in Question: Evidentiary Birthright and Statelessness||Benjamin N. Lawrance & Jacqueline Stevens (eds.)||2017||Citizenship is often assumed to be a clear-cut issue—either one has it or one does not. However, as the contributors to Citizenship in Question demonstrate, citizenship is not self-evident; it emerges from often obscure written records and is interpreted through ambiguous and dynamic laws. In case studies that analyze the legal barriers to citizenship rights in over twenty countries, the contributors explore how states use evidentiary requirements to create and police citizenship, often based on fictions of racial, ethnic, class, and religious differences. Whether examining the United States’ deportation of its own citizens, the selective use of DNA tests and secret results in Thailand, or laws that have stripped entire populations of citizenship, the contributors emphasize the political, psychological, and personal impact of citizenship policies. Citizenship in Question incites scholars to revisit long-standing political theories and debates about nationality, free movement, and immigration premised on the assumption of clear demarcations between citizens and noncitizens.|
|Expelling the Poor: Atlantic Seaboard States and the Nineteenth-Century Origins of American Immigration Policy||Hidetaka Hirota||2016||Historians have long assumed that immigration to the United States was free from regulation until anti-Asian racism on the West Coast triggered the introduction of federal laws to restrict Chinese immigration in the 1880s. Studies of European immigration and government control on the East Coast have, meanwhile, focused on Ellis Island, which opened in 1892. In this groundbreaking work, Hidetaka Hirota reinterprets the origins of immigration restriction in the United States, especially deportation policy, offering the first sustained study of immigration control conducted by states prior to the introduction of federal immigration law. Faced with the influx of impoverished Irish immigrants over the first half of the nineteenth century, nativists in New York and Massachusetts built upon colonial poor laws to develop policies for prohibiting the landing of destitute foreigners and deporting those already resident to Europe, Canada, or other American states. These policies laid the foundations for federal immigration law. By investigating state officials’ practices of illegal removal, including the overseas deportation of citizens, this book reveals how the state-level treatment of destitute immigrants set precedents for the use of unrestricted power against undesirable aliens. It also traces the transnational lives of the migrants from their initial departure from Ireland and passage to North America through their expulsion from the United States and postdeportation lives in Europe, showing how American deportation policy operated as part of the broader exclusion of nonproducing members from societies in the Atlantic world.|
By locating the roots of American immigration control in cultural prejudice against the Irish and, more essentially, economic concerns about their poverty in nineteenth-century New York and Massachusetts, Expelling the Poor fundamentally revises the history of American immigration policy.
|Enduring Uncertainty: Deportation, Punishment, and Everyday Life||Ines Hasselberg||2016||Focusing on the lived experience of immigration policy and processes, this volume provides fascinating insights into the deportation process as it is felt and understood by those subjected to it. The author presents a rich and innovative ethnography of deportation and deportability experienced by migrants convicted of criminal offenses in England and Wales. The unique perspectives developed here – on due process in immigration appeals, migrant surveillance and control, social relations and sense of self, and compliance and resistance – are important for broader understandings of border control policy and human rights.|
|From Deportation to Prison: The Politics of Immigration Enforcement in Post-Civil Rights America||Patrisia Macias-Rojas||2016||Criminal prosecutions for immigration offenses have more than doubled over the last two decades, as national debates about immigration and criminal justice reforms became headline topics. What lies behind this unprecedented increase? From Deportation to Prison unpacks how the incarceration of over two million people in the United States gave impetus to a federal immigration initiative—The Criminal Alien Program (CAP)—designed to purge non-citizens from dangerously overcrowded jails and prisons. Drawing on over a decade of ethnographic and archival research, the findings in this book reveal how the Criminal Alien Program quietly set off a punitive turn in immigration enforcement that has fundamentally altered detention, deportation, and criminal prosecutions for immigration offenses.|
Patrisia Macías-Rojas presents a “street-level” perspective on how this new regime has serious lived implications for the day-to-day actions of Border Patrol agents, local law enforcement, civil and human rights advocates, and for migrants and residents of predominantly Latina/o border communities.
|Returned: Going and Coming in an Age of Deportation||Deborah A. Boehm||2016||Returned follows transnational Mexicans as they experience the alienation and unpredictability of deportation, tracing the particular ways that U.S. immigration policies and state removals affect families. Deportation—an emergent global order of social injustice—reaches far beyond the individual deportee, as family members with diverse U.S. immigration statuses, including U.S. citizens, also return after deportation or migrate for the first time. The book includes accounts of displacement, struggle, suffering, and profound loss but also of resilience, flexibility, and imaginings of what may come. Returned tells the story of the chaos, and design, of deportation and its aftermath.|
|Exiled Home: Salvadoran Transnational Youth in the Aftermath of Violence||Susan Bibler Coutin||2016||In Exiled Home, Susan Bibler Coutin recounts the experiences of Salvadoran children who migrated with their families to the United States during the 1980–1992 civil war. Because of their youth and the violence they left behind, as well as their uncertain legal status in the United States, many grew up with distant memories of El Salvador and a profound sense of disjuncture in their adopted homeland. Through interviews in both countries, Coutin examines how they sought to understand and overcome the trauma of war and displacement through such strategies as recording community histories, advocating for undocumented immigrants, forging new relationships with the Salvadoran state, and, for those deported from the United States, reconstructing their lives in El Salvador. In focusing on the case of Salvadoran youth, Coutin’s nuanced analysis shows how the violence associated with migration can be countered through practices that recuperate historical memory while also reclaiming national membership.|
|John Lennon vs. the U.S.A.: The Inside Story of the Most Bitterly Contested and Influential Deportation Case in United States History||Leon Wildes||2016||At a time when the hottest issue in US immigration law is the proposed action by President Obama to protect from deportation as many as 5 million illegals in the United States, the 1972 John Lennon deportation case takes on special relevance today, notwithstanding the passage of forty years since he was placed in deportation proceedings. For the first time, noted New York immigration attorney Leon Wildes tells the incredible story of this landmark case – John Lennon vs. The U.S.A. — that set up a battle of wills between John Lennon, Yoko Ono, and President Richard Nixon. Although Wildes did not even know who John Lennon and Yoko Ono were when he was originally retained by them, he developed a close relationship with them both during the eventual five-year period while he represented them and thereafter. This is their incredible story.|
|L’Europa Deporta: Richiedenti Asilo Nella Rete del Regolamento di Dublino/ Europe Deports: Asylum Seekers Caught in the Web of the Dublin Regulation||Paolo Grassi, Matteo Spertini, Christian Parolari||2016||This book is the result of a combination of an experience in participative social research and an experiment in documentary photography. “Europe deports” focuses on a group of refugee seekers living in a refugee centre in the province of Varese that seeks to shed light on European laws on asylum. It focuses on an absurd communitarian regulation that forces refugee seekers to return to the first European country in which they entered to ask for protection and wait for bureaucracy to take its course – effectively deporting them. The book recounts the life histories of five refugees, complemented with photographic works. The visual component shirks sensationalism, instead using the still life technique: presenting objects chosen by the refugee seekers themselves to represent the things they brought with them during their journeys to Europe.|
|Detaining the Immigrant Other: Global and Transnational Issues||Rich Furman, Douglas Epps, Greg Lamphear (eds.)||2016||This edited text explores immigration detention through a global and transnational lens. Immigration detention is frequently transnational; the complex dynamics of apprehending, detaining, and deporting undocumented immigrants involve multiple organizations that coordinate and often act across nation state boundaries. The lives of undocumented immigrants are also transnational in nature; the detention of immigrants in one country (often without due process and without providing the opportunity to contact those in their country of origin) has profound economic and emotional consequences for their families.The authors explore immigration detention in countries that have not often been previously explored in the literature. Some of these chapters include analyses of detention in countries such as Malaysia, South Africa, Turkey and Indonesia. They also present chapters that are comparative in nature and deal with larger, macro issues about immigration detention in general. The authors’ frequent usage of lived experience in conjunction with a broad scholarly knowledge base is what sets this volume apart from others, making it useful and practical for scholars in the social sciences and anybody interested in the global phenomenon of immigration detention.|
|Deportation, Anxiety, Justice: New Ethnographic Perspective||Heike Drotbohm (Editor), Ines Hasselberg||2016||This book provides new ethnographic perspectives on the intersections between deportation, anxiety, and justice. As an instrument for controlling international migration, deportation policies may be justified by public authorities as measures responding to anxieties over (unregulated) migration. At the same time, they also bring out uncertainty and unrest to deportable and deported migrants as well as to their social and institutional environments, in which this act of the state may appear deeply unjust. Providing new and complementary insights into what ‘deportation’ as a legal and policy measure actually embraces in social reality, this book argues for an understanding of deportation as a process that begins long before (and carries on long after) the removal from one country to another has taken place. It provides a transnational perspective over the ‘deportation corridor’, covering different places, sites, actors, and institutions. Most importantly, it reasserts the emotional and normative elements inherent to contemporary deportation policies and practices, emphasizing the interplay between deportation, perceptions of justice, and national, institutional, and personal anxieties.|
Written by leading experts in the field, the contributions cover a broad spectrum of geographical sites, deportation practices, and perspectives, bringing together a long overdue addition to the current scholarship on deportation studies. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.
|Implementation of EU Readmission Agreements: Identity Determination Dilemmas and the Blurring of Rights||Sergio Carrera||2016||By examining the implementation dynamics of EU Readmission Agreements (EURAs), this book addresses the practical reasons why irregular immigrants cannot be expelled. EURAs are one of the vital legal instruments framing EU external migration law with regard to the expulsion of irregular immigrants, yet their implementation has met with various obstacles. Above all, the process of determining an individual’s legal identity has proven to be one of the most controversial aspects in the implementation of EURAs. The analysis shows that the process of identifying who is whose national in the context of readmission creates two existential dilemmas: first from the perspective of the sovereignty of third countries of origin and the legal standards laid out in international instruments as regards states’ powers in determining nationality, and second regarding the agency of the individual as a holder of fundamental human rights.|
How do the EURAs deal with or aim at alleviating these identity determination dilemmas? The book provides a comparative analysis of the administrative procedures and rules envisaged by EURAs aimed at proving or presuming the nationality of the persons to be readmitted to their country of origin. It focuses on the ways in which nationality is to be determined or presumed in the scope of the 2010 EURA with Pakistan, and compares it with those foreseen in the EURAs with Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cape Verde, Georgia, and Turkey. As such, the book provides a unique and up-to-date study of EURAs and their implementation challenges in the broader context of EU external migration law and policy.
|Forgotten Citizens: Deportation, Children, and the Making of American Exiles and Orphans||Luis H. Zayes||2015||The United States Constitution insures that all persons born in the US are citizens with equal protection under the law. But in today’s America, the US-born children of undocumented immigrants–over four million of them–do not enjoy fully the benefits of citizenship or of feeling that they belong. Children in mixed-status families are forgotten in the loud and discordant immigration debate. They live under the constant threat that their parents will suddenly be deported. Their parents face impossible decisions: make their children exiles or make them orphans. In Forgotten Citizens, Luis Zayas holds a mirror to a nation in crisis, providing invaluable perspectives for anyone brave enough to look. Zayas draws on his extensive work as a mental health clinician and researcher to present the most complete picture yet of how immigration policy subverts children’s rights, harms their mental health, and leaves lasting psychological trauma. We meet Virginia, a kindergartener so terrified of revealing her family’s status that she took her father’s warning don’t say anything so literally she hadn’t spoken in school in over a year. We hear from Brandon, exiled with his family to Mexico, who worries that his father will die in the desert trying to immigrate again. Children like Virginia and Brandon have been silenced and their stories largely overlooked in the broader debates about immigration policy. As this book demonstrates, we can no longer afford to ignore them.|
|Everyday Illegal: When Policies Undermine Immigrant Families||Joanna Dreby||2015||What does it mean to be an illegal immigrant, or the child of immigrants, in this era of restrictive immigration laws in the US? In Everyday Illegal, Joanna Dreby recounts the stories of children and parents in eighty-one families to show what happens when a restrictive immigration system emphasizes deportation over legalization. Interweaving her own experiences, Dreby illustrates how crippling strains can arise in relationships when spouses have different legal statuses. She introduces us to ‘suddenly single mothers’ who struggle to place food on the table and pay rent after their husbands have been deported. Taking us into the homes and schools of children living in increasingly vulnerable circumstances, she presents families that are divided internally, with some children having legal status while their siblings are unauthorized. As legal status influences identity formation, alters the division of power within families, and affects the opportunities children have outside the home, it becomes a source of inequality that touches us all.|
|Living Together, Living Apart: Mixed-Status Families and U.S. Immigration Policy||April M. Schueths & Jodie Michelle Lawston||2015||Immigration reform remains one of the most contentious issues in the United States today. For mixed status families-families that include both citizens and noncitizens-this is more than a political issue: it’s a deeply personal one. Undocumented family members and legal residents lack the rights and benefits of their family members who are US citizens, while family members and legal residents sometimes have their rights compromised by punitive immigration policies based on a strict “citizen/noncitizen” dichotomy.|
This collection of personal narratives and academic essays is the first to focus on the daily lives and experiences, as well as the broader social contexts, for mixed status families in the contemporary United States. Threats of raids, deportation, incarceration, and detention loom large over these families. At the same time, their lives are characterized by the resilience, perseverance, and resourcefulness necessary to maintain strong family bonds, both within the United States and across national boundaries.
|The New Deportations Delirium: Interdisciplinary Responses||Dan Kanstroom & M. Brinton Lykes (eds.)||2015||Since 1996, when the deportation laws were hardened, millions of migrants to the U.S., including many long-term legal permanent residents with “green cards,” have experienced summary arrest, incarceration without bail, transfer to remote detention facilities, and deportation without counsel—a life-time banishment from what is, in many cases, the only country they have ever known. U.S.-based families and communities face the loss of a worker, neighbor, spouse, parent, or child. Many of the deported are “sentenced home” to a country which they only knew as an infant, whose language they do not speak, or where a family lives in extreme poverty or indebtedness for not yet being able to pay the costs of their previous migration. But what does this actually look like and what are the systems and processes and who are the people who are enforcing deportation policies and practices? The New Deportations Delirium responds to these questions. Taken as a whole, the volume raises consciousness about the complexities of the issues and argues for the interdisciplinary dialogue and response. Over the course of the book, deportation policy is debated by lawyers, judges, social workers, researchers, and clinical and community psychologists as well as educators, researchers, and community activists. The New Deportations Delirium presents a fresh conversation and urges a holistic response to the complex realities facing not only migrants but also the wider U.S. society in which they have sought a better life.|
|The Irregularization of Migration in Contemporary Europe: Detention, Deportation, Drowning||Yolande Jansen, Robin Celikates, Joost de Bloois||2015||Working from an interdisciplinary perspective that draws on the social sciences, legal studies, and the humanities, this book investigates the causes and effects of the extremities experienced by migrants. Firstly, the volume analyses the development and political-cultural conditions of current practices and discourses of bordering, illegality, and irregularization. Secondly, it focuses on the varieties of irregularization and on the diversity of the fields, techniques and effects involved in this variegation. Thirdly, the book examines examples of resistance that migrants and migratory cultures have developed in order to deal with the predicaments they face. The book uses the European Union as its case study, exploring practices and discourses of bordering, border control, and migration regulation. But the significance of this field extends well beyond the European context as the monitoring of Europe s borders increasingly takes place on a global scale and reflects an internationally increasing trend.”|
|Detained and Deported: Stories of Immigrant Families Under Fire||Margaret Regan||2015||On a bright Phoenix morning, Elena Santiago opened her door to find her house surrounded by a platoon of federal immigration agents. Her children screamed as the officers handcuffed her and drove her away. Within hours, she was deported to the rough border town of Nogales, Sonora, with nothing but the clothes on her back. Her two-year-old daughter and fifteen-year-old son, both American citizens, were taken by the state of Arizona and consigned to foster care. Their mother’s only offense: living undocumented in the United States.Immigrants like Elena, who’ve lived in the United States for years, are being detained and deported at unprecedented rates. Thousands languish in detention centers—often torn from their families—for months or even years. Deportees are returned to violent Central American nations or unceremoniously dropped off in dangerous Mexican border towns. Despite the dangers of the desert crossing, many immigrants will slip across the border again, stopping at nothing to get home to their children.|
Drawing on years of reporting in the Arizona-Mexico borderlands, journalist Margaret Regan tells their poignant stories. Inside the massive Eloy Detention Center, a for-profit private prison in Arizona, she meets detainee Yolanda Fontes, a mother separated from her three small children. In a Nogales soup kitchen, deportee Gustavo Sanchez, a young father who’d lived in Phoenix since the age of eight, agonizes about the risks of the journey back. Regan demonstrates how increasingly draconian detention and deportation policies have broadened police powers, while enriching a private prison industry whose profits are derived from human suffering. She also documents the rise of resistance, profiling activists and young immigrant “Dreamers” who are fighting for the rights of the undocumented. Compelling and heart-wrenching, Detained and Deported offers a rare glimpse into the lives of people ensnared in America’s immigration dragnet.
|When Humans Become Migrants: Study of the European Court of Human Rights with an Inter-American Counterpoint||Marie-Bénédicte Dembour||2015||The treatment of migrants is one of the most challenging issues that human rights, as a political philosophy, faces today. It has increasingly become a contentious issue for many governments and international organizations around the world. The controversies surrounding immigration can lead to practices at odds with the ethical message embodied in the concept of human rights, and the notion of ‘migrants’ as a group which should be treated in a distinct manner. This book examines the way in which two institutions tasked with ensuring the protection of human rights, the European Court of Human Rights and Inter-American Court of Human Rights, treat claims lodged by migrants. It combines legal, sociological, and historical analysis to show that the two courts were the product of different backgrounds, which led to differing attitudes towards migrants in their founding texts, and that these differences were reinforced in their developing case law. The book assesses the case law of both courts in detail to argue that they approach migrant cases from fundamentally different perspectives. It asserts that the European Court of Human Rights treats migrants first as aliens, and then, but only as a second step in its reasoning, as human beings. By contrast, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights approaches migrants first as human beings, and secondly as foreigners (if they are). Dembour argues therefore that the Inter-American Court of Human Rights takes a fundamentally more human rights-driven approach to this issue. The book shows how these trends formed at the courts, and assesses whether their approaches have changed over time. It also assesses in detail the issue of the detention of irregular migrants. Ultimately it analyses whether the divergence in the case law of the two courts is likely to continue, or whether they could potentially adopt a more unified practice.|
|Rights, Deportation, and Detention in the Age of Immigration Control||Tom K. Wong||2015||Immigration is among the most prominent, enduring, and contentious features of our globalized world. Yet, there is little systematic, cross-national research on why countries “do what they do” when it comes to their immigration policies. Rights, Deportation, and Detention in the Age of Immigration Control addresses this gap by examining what are arguably the most contested and dynamic immigration policies—immigration control—across 25 immigrant-receiving countries, including the U.S. and most of the European Union. The book addresses head on three of the most salient aspects of immigration control: the denial of rights to non-citizens, their physical removal and exclusion from the polity through deportation, and their deprivation of liberty and freedom of movement in immigration detention. In addition to answering the question of why states do what they do, the book describes contemporary trends in what Tom K. Wong refers to as the machinery of immigration control, analyzes the determinants of these trends using a combination of quantitative analysis and fieldwork, and explores whether efforts to deter unwanted immigration are actually working.|
|The Right of an Alien to be Protected Against Arbitrary Expulsion in International Law||Julia Wojnowska-Radzińska||2015||In The Right of an Alien to be Protected against Arbitrary Expulsion in International Law Julia Wojnowska-Radzińska offers a comprehensive legal study of international legal obligations of States for the protection of aliens lawfully residing against arbitrary expulsion. It also provides practical information on administrative proceedings, legal remedies and procedural rights aliens exercise. The book aims at answering a fundamental question how to strike a balance between the inherent right of a State to expel an alien and the rights the latter is entitled to. The reader will therefore be given a survey of the subject that is both usefully brief and sufficiently detailed to answer most questions likely to arise in any pertinent legal setting.|
|Deportation and the Confluence of Violence within Forensic Mental Health and Immigration Systems||Ameil J. Joseph||2015||The practices and technologies of evaluation and decision making used by professionals, police, lawyers and experts are questioned in this book for their participation in the perpetuation of historical forms of colonial violence through the enforcement of racial and eugenic policies and laws in Canada.|
|Deported: Immigrant Policing, Disposable Labor, and Global Capitalism||Tanya Maria Golash-Boza||2015||The United States currently is deporting more people than ever before: 4 million people have been deported since 1997 –twice as many as all people deported prior to 1996. There is a disturbing pattern in the population deported: 97% of deportees are sent to Latin America or the Caribbean, and 88% are men, many of whom were originally detained through the U.S. criminal justice system. Weaving together hard-hitting critique and moving first-person testimonials, Deported tells the intimate stories of people caught in an immigration law enforcement dragnet that serves the aims of global capitalism.Tanya Golash-Boza uses the stories of 147 of these deportees to explore the racialized and gendered dimensions of mass deportation in the United States, showing how this crisis is embedded in economic restructuring, neoliberal reforms, and the disproportionate criminalization of black and Latino men. In the United States, outsourcing creates service sector jobs and more of a need for the unskilled jobs that attract immigrants looking for new opportunities, but it also leads to deindustrialization, decline in urban communities, and, consequently, heavy policing. Many immigrants are exposed to the same racial profiling and policing as native-born blacks and Latinos. Unlike the native-born, though, when immigrants enter the criminal justice system, deportation is often their only way out. Ultimately, Golash-Boza argues that deportation has become a state strategy of social control, both in the United States and in the many countries that receive deportees.|
|Beyond Deportation: The Role of Prosecutorial Discretion in Immigration Cases||Shoba Sivaprasad Wadhia||2015||When Beatles star John Lennon faced deportation from the U.S. in the 1970s, his lawyer Leon Wildes made a groundbreaking argument. He argued that Lennon should be granted “nonpriority” status pursuant to INS’s (now DHS’s) policy of prosecutorial discretion. In U.S. immigration law, the agency exercises prosecutorial discretion favorably when it refrains from enforcing the full scope of immigration law. A prosecutorial discretion grant is important to an agency seeking to focus its priorities on the “truly dangerous” in order to conserve resources and to bring compassion into immigration enforcement. The Lennon case marked the first moment that the immigration agency’s prosecutorial discretion policy became public knowledge. Today, the concept of prosecutorial discretion is more widely known in light of the Obama Administration’s Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals or DACA program, a record number of deportations and a stalemate in Congress to move immigration reform. Beyond Deportation is the first book to comprehensively describe the history, theory, and application of prosecutorial discretion in immigration law. It provides a rich history of the role of prosecutorial discretion in the immigration system and unveils the powerful role it plays in protecting individuals from deportation and saving the government resources. Shoba Sivaprasad Wadhia draws on her years of experience as an immigration attorney, policy leader, and law professor to advocate for a bolder standard on prosecutorial discretion, greater mechanisms for accountability when such standards are ignored, improved transparency about the cases involving prosecutorial discretion, and recognition of “deferred action” in the law as a formal benefit.|
|Punish and Expel: Border Control, Nationalism, and the New Purpose of the Prison||Emma Kaufman||2015||In 2006, after a scandal that gripped the country, the British government began to transform its prison system. Under pressure to find and expel foreigners, Her Majesty’s Prison Service began concentrating non-citizens in prisons with ’embedded’ border agents. Today, prison officers refer anyone suspected of being foreign to immigration authorities and prisoners facing deportation are detained in special prisons devoted to confining non-citizens. Those who cannot be deported linger, sometimes for years, indefinitely detained behind prison walls. The British approach to foreign nationals reflects a broader trend in punishment. Over the past decade, penal institutions across England, the United States, and Western Europe have become key sites for border control. Offering the first comprehensive account of the imprisonment of non-citizens in the United Kingdom, Punish and Expel: Border Control, Nationalism, and the New Purpose of the Prison draws on extensive empirical data, based on fieldwork in five men’s prisons, to explore the relationship between punishment and citizenship. Using first-hand testimonies from hundreds of prisoners, prison officers, and high-level policy makers, it describes how prisons create a national identity and goes inside citizenship classes and ‘all-foreign’ prisons, documenting the treatment of non-citizens by other prisoners and staff. Passionately argued and meticulously researched, Punish and Expel links prisons to the history of British colonialism and the contemporary politics of race, whilst challenging readers to rethink their approach to prisons, and to the people held inside them.|
|Dreams Deported: Immigrant Youth and Families Resist Deportation||Kent Wong & Nancy Guarneros (eds.)||2015||Dreams Deported: Immigrant Youth and Families Resist Deportation is a UCLA student publication featuring stories of deportation and of the courageous immigrant youth and families who have led the national campaign against deportations and successfully challenged the president of the United States to act. This is the third book on this topic published by the UCLA Center for Labor Research and Education. The first book, Underground Undergrads: UCLA Undocumented Immigrant Students Speak Out, was the first in the country written by and about undocumented immigrant youth. The second book, Undocumented and Unafraid: Tam Tran, Cinthya Felix, and the Immigrant Youth Movement, is a tribute to Tam and Cinthya and captures the voices of a new generation who are coming out of the shadows, making history, and changing our country.|
|The Law and Practice of Expulsion and Exclusion from the UK: Deportation, Removal, Exclusion and Deprivation of Citizenship||Eric Fripp||2015||This book, which focuses on the law and practice governing deportation, removal and exclusion from the UK, the denial of British citizenship, and deprivation of that citizenship, represents the first attempt by practitioners to provide a cohesive assessment of UK law and practice in these areas. The undertaking is a vital one because, whilst these areas of law and practice have long existed as the hard edge of immigration and nationality laws, in recent years the use of some powers in this area has greatly increased and such powers have arguably expanded beyond secondary existence as mere mechanisms of enforcement. The body of law, practice and policy created by this process is one which justifies treatment as a primary concern for public lawyers.|
|The Other People: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Migration||Meg Wilkes Karraker||2015||This book offers an interdisciplinary and accessible approach to issues of global migration in the twenty-first century in 13 essays plus an appendix written by scholars and practitioners in the field.|
|Whose Child at I? Unaccompanied, Undocumented Children in the U.S. Immigration Custody||Susan Terrio||2015||In 2014, the arrest and detention of thousands of desperate young migrants at the southwest border of the United States exposed the U.S. government’s shadowy juvenile detention system, which had escaped public scrutiny for years. This book tells the story of six Central American and Mexican children who are driven from their homes by violence and deprivation, and who embark alone, risking their lives, on the perilous journey north. They suffer coercive arrests at the U.S. border, then land in detention, only to be caught up in the battle to obtain legal status.Whose Child Am I?looks inside a vast, labyrinthine system by documenting in detail the experiences of these youths, beginning with their arrest by immigration authorities, their subsequent placement in federal detention, followed by their appearance in deportation proceedings and release from custody, and, finally, ending with their struggle to build new lives in the United States. This book shows how the U.S. government got into the business of detaining children and what we can learn from this troubled history.|
|Asylum Seeker and Refugee Protection in Sub-Saharan Africa: the Peregrinations of a Persecuted Human Being in Search of a Safe Haven||Cristiano d’Orsi||2015||It is not often acknowledged that the great majority of African refugee movement happens within Africa rather than from Africa to the West. This book examines the specific characteristics and challenges of the refugee situation in Sub-Saharan Africa, offering a new and critical vision on the situation of asylum-seekers and refugees in the African continent. Cristiano d’Orsi considers the international, regional and domestic legal and institutional frameworks linked to refugee protection in Sub-Saharan Africa, and explores the contributions African refugee protection has brought to the cause on a global scale. Key issues covered in the book include the theory and the practice of non-refoulement, an analysis of the phenomenon of mass-influx, the concept of burden-sharing, and the role of freedom fighters. The book goes on to examine the expulsions of refugees and the historical role played by UNHCR in Sub-Saharan Africa. As a work which follows the persecution and legal challenges of those in search of a safe haven, this book will be of great interest and use to researchers and students of immigration and asylum law, international law, human rights, and African studies.|
|The Human Rights of Migrants and Refugees in European Law||Cathryn Costello||2015||Focusing on access to territory and authorization of presence and residence for third-country nationals, this book examines the EU law on immigration and asylum, addressing related questions of security of residence. Concentrating on the key measures concerning both the rights of third-country nationals to enter and stay in the EU, and the EU’s construction of illegal immigration, it provides a detailed and critical discussion of EU and ECHR migration and refugee law.|
Rights of admission include three categories of entrants: labour migrants, family migrants, and asylum seekers and refugees. Legal entry raises further questions, and recent key measures, including the EU Blue Card Directive, the Family Reunification Directive, and the Dublin Regulation and related instruments are examined. As most of these EU measures deal with those border crossings where human rights norms have already established some constraints on state discretion, the interaction between the EU norms and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) is a key concern. The uniting theme is the interaction between established human rights norms, in particular the ECHR, and EU law.
|Constructing Immigrant “Illegality”: Critiques, Experiences, and Responses||Cecilia Menjívar, Dan Kanstroom||2014||The topic of “illegal” immigration has been a major aspect of public discourse in the United States and many other immigrant-receiving countries. From the beginning of its modern invocation in the early twentieth century, the often ill-defined epithet of human “illegality” has figured prominently in the media; in vigorous public debates at the national, state, and local levels; and in presidential campaigns. In this collection of essays, contributors from a variety of disciplines – anthropology, law, political science, religious studies, and sociology – examine how immigration law shapes immigrant illegality, how the concept of immigrant illegality is deployed and lived, and how its power is wielded and resisted. The authors conclude that the current concept of immigrant illegality is in need of sustained critique, as careful analysis will aid policy discussions and lead to more just solutions.|
|Rightlessness in an Age of Rights: Hannah Arendt and the Contemporary Struggles of Migrants||Ayten Gündogdu||2014||There have been remarkable developments in the field of human rights in the past few decades. Still, millions of asylum-seekers, refugees, and undocumented immigrants continue to find it challenging to access human rights. In this book, Ayten Gündogdu builds on Hannah Arendt’s analysis of statelessness and argues that these challenges reveal the perplexities of human rights. Human rights promise equal personhood regardless of citizenship status, yet their existing formulations are tied to the principle of territorial sovereignty. This situation leaves various categories of migrants in a condition of “rightlessness,” with a very precarious legal, political, and human standing. Gündogdu examines this problem in the context of immigration detention, deportation, and refugee camps. Critical of the existing system of human rights without seeing it as a dead end, she argues for the need to pay closer attention to the political practices of migrants who challenge their condition of rightlessness and propose new understandings of human rights. What arises from this critical reflection on human rights is also a novel reading of Arendt, one that offers refreshing insights into various dimensions of her political thought, including her account of the human condition, “the social question,” and “the right to have rights.” Rightlessness in an Age of Rights is a valuable addition to the literature on Hannah Arendt and a vital way of rethinking human rights as they relate to contemporary issues of immigration.|
|The Liberty of Non-Citizens: Indefinite Detention in Commonwealth Countries||Rayner Thwaites||2014||The book addresses the legality of indefinite detention in countries including Australia, the United Kingdom and Canada, enabling a rich cross-fertilisation of experiences and discourses. The issue has arisen where a government is frustrated in its ability to remove a non-citizen subject to a removal order and employs a power to detain him until removal. The cases raise fundamental questions about the nature and extent of immigration powers, the legal position of non-citizens and counter-terrorism law and policy. More broadly, the judgments have become key reference points in discussions of constitutionalism, rights and a range of contemporary issues in public law.The book analyses the legal context, reasoning and implications of the case law on indefinite detention. It argues that the law of each jurisdiction contains ample resources to support a ruling that indefinite detention is illegal. It demonstrates that, taking into account variations in legal frameworks and doctrines, a judge’s response to indefinite detention is determined by his or her answer to the question whether a non-citizen, subject to a removal order, retains a right to liberty. It details how a judge’s answer flows through his or her adjudication on the scope of the relevant exception to liberty.The thesis on which the book is based won the 2010 Marks Medal from the University of Toronto Law Faculty for the best graduate thesis.|
|Re-Immigration After Deportation: Family, Gender, and the Decision to Make a Second Attempt to Enter the U.S.||Paola Molina||2013||Molina follows the journey of 70 deported migrant women and men as they consider further migration while staying in a migrant shelter located at the U.S.-Mexico border. She shows the complex ways in which gender and family shape further migration intentions. One unexpected development was the large presence of permanent U.S. settlers in the sample. Of the 70 respondents, 29 were residing in the U.S. when they were apprehended. Desperate for family reunification, the majority of these respondents intended to cross again, despite dangerous crossings of the Arizona-Sonora desert, multiple apprehensions, and mistreatment by U.S. authorities.|
|Survival Migration: Failed Governance and the Crisis of Displacement||Alexander Betts||2013||International treaties, conventions, and organizations to protect refugees were established in the aftermath of World War II to protect people escaping targeted persecution by their own governments. However, the nature of cross-border displacement has transformed dramatically since then. Such threats as environmental change, food insecurity, and generalized violence force massive numbers of people to flee states that are unable or unwilling to ensure their basic rights, as do conditions in failed and fragile states that make possible human rights deprivations. Because these reasons do not meet the legal understanding of persecution, the victims of these circumstances are not usually recognized as “refugees,” preventing current institutions from ensuring their protection.In this book, Alexander Betts develops the concept of “survival migration” to highlight the crisis in which these people find themselves. Examining flight from three of the most fragile states in Africa—Zimbabwe, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Somalia—Betts explains variation in institutional responses across the neighboring host states. There is massive inconsistency. Some survival migrants are offered asylum as refugees; others are rounded up, detained, and deported, often in brutal conditions. The inadequacies of the current refugee regime are a disaster for human rights and gravely threaten international security. In Survival Migration, Betts outlines these failings, illustrates the enormous human suffering that results, and argues strongly for an expansion of protected categories.|
|The Borders of Punishment: Migration, Citizenship, and Social Exclusion||Katja Franko Aas & Mary Bosworth (eds.)||2013||The Borders of Punishment: Migration, Citizenship, and Social Exclusion critically assesses the relationship between immigration control, citizenship, and criminal justice. It reflects on the theoretical and methodological challenges posed by mass mobility and its control and for the first time, sets out a particular sub-field within criminology, the criminology of mobility. Drawing together leading international scholars with newer researchers, the book systematically outlines why criminology and criminal justice should pay more attention to issues of immigration and border control.Contributors consider how ‘traditional’ criminal justice institutions such as the criminal law, police, and prisons are being shaped and altered by immigration, as well as examining novel forms of penalty (such as deportation and detention facilities), which have until now seldom featured in criminological studies and textbooks. In so doing, the book demonstrates that mobility and its control are matters that ought to be central to any understanding of the criminal justice system. Phenomena such as the controversial use of immigration law for the purposes of the war on terror, closed detention centers, deportation, and border policing, raise in new ways some of the fundamental and enduring questions of criminal justice and criminology: What is punishment? What is crime? What should be the normative and legal foundation for criminalization, for police suspicion, for the exclusion from the community, and for the deprivation of freedom? And who is the subject of rights within a society and what is the relevance of citizenship to criminal justice?|
|Us and Them? The Dangerous Politics of Immigration Control||Bridget Anderson||2013||Us and Them? explores the distinction between migrant and citizen through using the concept of ‘the community of value’. The community of value is comprised of Good Citizens and is defined from outside by the Non-Citizen and from the inside by the Failed Citizen, that is figures like the benefit scrounger, the criminal, the teenage mother etc. While Failed Citizens and Non-Citizens are often strongly differentiated, the book argues that it is analytically and politically productive to consider them together. Judgments about who counts as skilled, what is a good marriage, who is suitable for citizenship, and what sort of enforcement is acceptable against ‘illegals’, affect citizens as well as migrants. Rather than simple competitors for the privileges of membership, citizens and migrants define each other through sets of relations that shift and are not straightforward binaries. The first two chapters on vagrancy and on Empire historicise migration management by linking it to attempts to control the mobility of the poor. The following three chapters map and interrogate the concept of the ‘national labour market’ and UK immigration and citizenship policies examining how they work within public debate to produce ‘us and them’. Chapters 6 and 7 go on to discuss the challenges posed by enforcement and deportation, and the attempt to make this compatible with liberalism through anti-trafficking policies. It ends with a case study of domestic labour as exemplifying the ways in which all the issues outlined above come together in the lives of migrants and their employers.|
|Immigration Nation Raids, Detentions, and Deportations in Post-9/11 America||Tanya Maria Golash-Boza||2012||In the wake of September 11, 2001, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was created to prevent terrorist attacks in the US.This led to dramatic increases in immigration law enforcement – raids, detentions and deportations have increased six-fold. Immigration Nation critically analyses the human rights impact of this tightening of US immigration policy. Golash-Boza reveals that it has had consequences not just for immigrants, but for citizens, families and communities. She shows that even though family reunification is officially a core component of US immigration policy, it has often torn families apart. This is a critical and revealing look at the real life – frequently devastating – impact of immigration policy in a security conscious world.|
|Aftermath: Deportation Law and the New American Diaspora||Daniel Kanstroom||2012||Since 1996, when new, harsher deportation laws went into effect, the United States has deported millions of noncitizens back to their countries of origin. While the rights of immigrants-with or without legal status–as well as the appropriate pathway to legal status are the subject of much debate, hardly any attention has been paid to what actually happens to deportees once they “pass beyond our aid.” In fact, we have fostered a new diaspora of deportees, many of whom are alone and isolated, with strong ties to their former communities in the United States. Daniel Kanstroom, author of the authoritative history of deportation, Deportation Nation, turns his attention here to the current deportation system of the United States and especially deportation’s aftermath: the actual effects on individuals, families, U.S. communities, and the countries that must process and repatriate ever-increasing numbers of U.S. deportees. Few know that once deportees have been expelled to places like Guatemala, Cambodia, Haiti, and El Salvador, many face severe hardship, persecution and, in extreme instances, even death.|
Addressing a wide range of political, social, and legal issues, Kanstroom considers whether our deportation system “works” in any meaningful sense. He also asks a number of under-examined legal and philosophical questions: What is the relationship between the “rule of law” and the border? Where do rights begin and end? Do (or should) deportees ever have a “right to return”? After demonstrating that deportation in the U.S. remains an anachronistic, ad hoc, legally questionable affair, the book concludes with specific reform proposals for a more humane and rational deportation system.
|The Social, Political, and Historical Contours of Deportation||Bridget Anderson, Matthew Gibney, Emanuela Paoletti||2013||In recent years states across the world have boosted their legal and institutional capacity to deport noncitizens residing on their territory, including failed asylum seekers, “illegal” migrants, and convicted criminals. Scholars have analyzed this development primarily through the lens of immigration control. Deportation has been viewed as one amongst a range of measures designed to control entrance, distinguished primarily by the fact that it is exercised inside the territory of the state. But deportation also has broader social and political effects. It provides a powerful way through which the state reminds noncitizens that their presence in the polity is contingent upon acceptable behavior. Furthermore, in liberal democratic states immunity from deportation is one of the key privileges that citizens enjoy that distinguishes them from permanent residents. This book examines the historical, institutional and social dimensions of the relationship between deportation and citizenship in liberal democracies. Contributions also include analysis of the formal and informal functions of administrative immigration detention, and the role of the European Parliament in the area of irregular immigration and borders. The book also develops an analytical framework that identifies and critically appraises grassroots and sub national responses to migration policy in liberal democratic societies, and considers how groups form after deportation and the employment of citizenship in this particular context, making it of interest to scholars and international policy makers alike.|
|Borderline Justice: The Fight for Refugee and Migrant Rights||Frances Webber||2012||From pre-arrival to detention and deportation, Borderline Justice describes the exclusionary policies, inhumane decisions and obstacles to justice for refugees and migrants in the current legal system.Frances Webber, a legal practitioner with over 30 years experience, provides a unique insight into how the law has been applied to migrants, refugees and other ‘unpopular minorities’. The book records some of the key legal struggles of the past thirty years which have sought to preserve values of universality in human rights – and the importance of continuing to fight for those values, inside and outside the courtroom. With its combination of legal and political analysis with insider insights, Borderline Justice will appeal to both academic and non-academic audiences. The themes and analysis cross boundaries of law, politics, sociology, criminology, refugee studies and terrorism studies, appealing to the radical tradition in all these disciplines.|
|Detained Without Cause: Muslims’ Stories of Detention and Deportation after 9/11||Irum Sheikh||2011||Immigrants from Pakistan, Egypt, India, and Palestine who were racially profiled and detained following the September 11 attacks tell their personal stories in a collection which explores themes of transnationalism, racialization, and the global war on terror, and explains the human cost of suspending civil liberties after a wartime emergency.|
|Banished to the Homeland: Dominican Deportees and Their Stories of Exile||David C. Brotherton & Luis Barrios||2011||The 1996 U.S. Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act has led to the forcible deportation of tens of thousands of Dominicans from the United States. Following thousands of these individuals over a seven-year period, David C. Brotherton and Luis Barrios use a unique combination of sociological and criminological reasoning to isolate the forces that motivate emigrants to leave their homeland and then commit crimes in the Unites States violating the very terms of their stay. Housed in urban landscapes rife with gangs, drugs, and tenuous working conditions, these individuals, the authors find, repeatedly play out a tragic scenario, influenced by long-standing historical injustices, punitive politics, and increasingly conservative attitudes undermining basic human rights and freedoms. Brotherton and Barrios conclude that a simultaneous process of cultural inclusion and socioeconomic exclusion best explains the trajectory of emigration, settlement, and rejection, and they mark in the behavior of deportees the contradictory effects of dependency and colonialism: the seductive draw of capitalism typified by the American dream versus the material needs of immigrant life; the interests of an elite security state versus the desires of immigrant workers and families to succeed; and the ambitions of the Latino community versus the political realities of those designing crime and immigration laws, which disadvantage poor and vulnerable populations. Filled with riveting life stories and uncommon ethnographic research, this volume relates the modern deportee’s journey to broader theoretical studies in transnationalism, assimilation, and social control.|
|The Deportation Regime: Sovereignty, Space, and the Freedom of Movement||Nicholas De Genova & Nathalie Peutz||2010||This important collection examines deportation as an increasingly global mechanism of state control. Anthropologists, historians, legal scholars, and sociologists consider not only the physical expulsion of noncitizens but also the social discipline and labor subordination resulting from deportability, the threat of forced removal. They explore practices and experiences of deportation in regional and national settings from the U.S.-Mexico border to Israel, and from Somalia to Switzerland. They also address broader questions, including the ontological significance of freedom of movement; the historical antecedents of deportation, such as banishment and exile; and the development, entrenchment, and consequences of organizing sovereign power and framing individual rights by territory.Whether investigating the power that individual and corporate sponsors have over the fate of foreign laborers in Bahrain, the implications of Germany’s temporary suspension of deportation orders for pregnant and ill migrants, or the significance of the detention camp, the contributors reveal how deportation reflects and reproduces notions about public health, racial purity, and class privilege. They also provide insight into how deportation and deportability are experienced by individuals, including Arabs, South Asians, and Muslims in the United States. One contributor looks at asylum claims in light of an unusual anti-deportation campaign mounted by Algerian refugees in Montreal; others analyze the European Union as an entity specifically dedicated to governing mobility inside and across its official borders. The Deportation Regime addresses urgent issues related to human rights, international migration, and the extensive security measures implemented by nation-states since September 11, 2001.|
|Immigration Detention and Human Rights: Rethinking Territorial Sovereignty||Galina Cornelisse||2010||Practices of immigration detention are largely resistant to conventional forms of legal correction because contemporary liberal democracies justify these practices with an appeal to their territorial sovereignty, a concept that thwarts the very communicability of individual interests in modern constitutionalism. However, this book argues that human rights in the specific context of immigration detention can function as “destabilisation rights”, subjecting to full legal scrutiny those claims that the national state presents as predominantly based on its territorial sovereignty. The resulting destabilisation of territorial sovereignty in both domestic and international constitutionalism will have ramifications for a number of instruments of migration control, the perceived necessity and legitimacy of which is almost exclusively based on the self-referential notion of territorial sovereignty.|
|Removing Peoples: Forced Removal in the Modern World||Richard Bessel & Claudia Haake (eds.)||2009||One of the terrible and tragic themes of modern history is the forced removal of millions of human beings. Scarcely a corner of the world has been spared the violence of the forced removal of people from their homes for political, economic, “racial,” religious, or cultural reasons. The causes, course, and consequences of the removal of peoples from their homes form a central theme in the history of the modern world. While removing people from their homes by force did not begin suddenly in the nineteenth century, the combination of the development of a global (capitalist) economy, of modern race-thinking, of world wars, of the triumph of popular and national sovereignty, and of new technological means of physically uprooting and transporting peoples has given this phenomenon a quantitatively and qualitatively new character. Removal has been a global phenomenon, and therefore this volume treats it within the frame of world history and international comparison. Examples discussed range from the United States in the 1830s to the expulsion of pied noir settlers from Algeria in the 1960s. A number of factors reshaped the older practices of forced migration and helped to make the removals discussed in this volume distinctly “modern.” These include the use of modern apparatuses of administration, communication, and coercion, as well as warfare based on modern technology and organization. When it became possible to remove human beings on a massive scale, people may have started to consider doing just that–and especially so in crises connected to war, colonization, or decolonization, as the studies assembled in this volume demonstrate.|
|States Against Migrants: Deportation in Germany and the United States||Antje Ellermann||2009||In this comparative study of the contemporary politics of deportation in Germany and the United States, Antje Ellermann analyzes the capacity of the liberal democratic state to control individuals within its borders. The book grapples with the question of why, in the 1990s, Germany responded to vociferous public demands for stricter immigration control by passing and implementing far-reaching policy reforms, while the United States failed to effectively respond to a comparable public mandate. Drawing on extensive field interviews, Ellermann finds that these crossnational differences reflect institutionally determined variations in socially coercive state capacity. By tracing the politics of deportation across the evolution of the policy cycle, beginning with anti-immigrant populist backlash and ending in the expulsion of migrants by deportation bureaucrats, Ellermann is also able to show that the conditions underlying state capacity systematically vary across policy stages. Whereas the ability to make socially coercive law is contingent on strong institutional linkages between the public and legislators, the capacity for implementation depends on the political insulation of bureaucrats.|
|Keeping Out the Other: A Critical Introduction to Immigration Enforcement Today||David C. Brotherton & Philip Kretsedemas (eds.)||2008||David C. Brotherton and Philip Kretsedemas provide a history and analysis of recent immigration enforcement in the United States, demonstrating that America’s current anti-immigration tendencies are not a knee-jerk reaction to the events of September 11, 2001. Rather, they have been gathering steam for decades. With contributions from social scientists, policy analysts, legal experts, community organizers, and journalists, the volume critically examines the discourse that has framed the question of immigration enforcement for the general public. It also explores the politics and practice of deportation, new forms of immigrant profiling, relevant case law, and antiterrorist operations. Some contributors couch their critiques in an appeal to constitutional law and the defense of civil liberties. Others draw on the theories of structural inequality and institutional discrimination. These diverse perspectives stimulate new ways of thinking about the issue of immigration enforcement, arguing that “security” has less to do with keeping out the “other” and more to do with improving the legal rights, social mobility, and well-being of all U.S. residents.|
|Deportation Nation: Outsiders in American History||Daniel Kanstroom||2007||The danger of deportation hangs over the head of virtually every non-citizen in the United States. In the complexities and inconsistencies of immigration law, one can find a reason to deport almost any noncitizen at almost any time. In recent years, the system has been used with unprecedented vigor against millions of deportees. We are a nation of immigrants—but which ones do we want, and what do we do with those that we don’t? These questions have troubled American law and politics since colonial times. Deportation Nation is a chilling history of communal self-idealization and self-protection. The post-Revolutionary Alien and Sedition Laws, the Fugitive Slave laws, the Indian “removals,” the Chinese Exclusion Act, the Palmer Raids, the internment of the Japanese Americans—all sought to remove those whose origins suggested they could never become “true” Americans. And for more than a century, millions of Mexicans have conveniently served as cheap labor, crossing a border that was not official until the early twentieth century and being sent back across it when they became a burden. By illuminating the shadowy corners of American history, Daniel Kanstroom shows that deportation has long been a legal tool to control immigrants’ lives and is used with increasing crudeness in a globalized but xenophobic world.|
|Migration in South and Southern Africa: Dynamics and Determinants||Pieter Kok, Derik Gelderblom, John Oucho, Johan van Zyl (eds.)||2006||In this wide-ranging work, prominent migration scholars provide insight into the current dynamics and determinants of both immigration and migration in South and southern Africa and reflect on how the lifting of apartheid has affected migration in the region. The book covers three broad areas: macro-level migration trends in sub-Saharan Africa, micro-level factors in South African migration, and a synthesis of current migration theory. Population movement is a complicated issue that faces many governments, and this text explains and evaluates the causes and consequences of migration on an international and internal scale, shedding light on models of movement.|