Afghanistan: sent back to a war zone

Afghanistan: sent back to a war zone (Petersmann 2017) Petersmann, Sandra. 2017. “Afghanistan: Sent back to a War Zone.” DW News, May 31. http://www.dw.com/en/afghanistan-sent-back-to-a-war-zone/a-39055955. Sandra Petersmann of DW News interviews Afghan deportees from Germany.  In the first two months of 2017, Germany denied more than half of all asylum applications.  Many of these deportees struggle in reintegrating into their countries of origin and continue to seek a route to return to Germany, where they have established strong ties.

Voluntary and Forced Returns to Afghanistan in 2016/17: Trends, statistics and experiences

Voluntary and Forced Returns to Afghanistan in 2016/17: Trends, statistics and experiences (Thomas Ruttig & Jelena Bjelica, Afghanistan Analysts Network, May 2017)   While hundreds of thousands of Afghans sought protection in Europe throughout 2015/16, an increasing number have been returning to Afghanistan, both voluntarily and involuntarily. The number of voluntary returnees from Europe picked up significantly throughout 2016, with additional returns in the first four months of 2017, reaching a total figure of over 8,000. By contrast, the number Read More

The Wrongs of Unlawful Immigration

The Wrongs of Unlawful Immigration (Ana Aliverti, Criminal Law and Philosophy, Vol, 11, Issue 2, pp 375–391, June 2017) For too long, criminal law scholars overlooked immigration-based offences. Claims that these offences are not ‘true crimes’ or are a ‘mere camouflage’ to pursue non-criminal law aims deflect attention from questions concerning the limits of criminalization and leave unchallenged contradictions at the heart of criminal law theory. My purpose in this paper is to examine these offences through some of the basic tenets of Read More

Report: Rate of deportations stagnating in Germany

Report: Rate of deportations stagnating in Germany (DW News, 2017) DW News. 2017. “Report: Rate of Deportations Stagnating in Germany,” June 4. http://www.dw.com/en/report-rate-of-deportations-stagnating-in-germany/a-39110422. Die Welt am Sonntag newspaper reported that, by the end of April, a total of 8,620 people had been sent back to their countries of origin after their asylum applications were rejected [in Germany]. The figures indicated a marked stagnation compared to last year, which saw a total of 25,375 deportations. This year has also seen fewer rejected Read More

Back to Square One: Socioeconomic Integration of Deported Migrants

Back to Square One: Socioeconomic Integration of Deported Migrants (Anda M. David, International Migration Review, Vol. 51, Issue 1, 2017) This paper addresses the issue of socioeconomic integration of forced return migrants, focusing on the Maghreb countries. Starting from the hypothesis that the return has to be prepared, I tested whether a disruption in the migration cycle (such as deportation) increases the individual’s vulnerability and affects his integration from both a structural and sociocultural point of view, using the 2006 Migration de Read More

The EU-Turkey deal: what happens to people who return to Turkey?

The EU-Turkey deal: what happens to people who return to Turkey? (Sevda Tunaboylu and Jill Alpes, Forced Migration Review, 2017)   On 18th March 2016, Turkey and the European Union (EU) made a joint statement. Political leaders agreed to the return to Turkey of people who had crossed to the Greek islands through irregular channels and also agreed to prevent the arrival of new asylum seekers via sea or land – in exchange for the liberalisation of EU visa requirements Read More

Post-Deportation Risks and Monitoring Mini-Feature

Post-Deportation Risks and Monitoring Mini-Feature (Forced Migration Review, vol. 54, February 2017) People whose application for asylum has been refused are often deported, usually to their country of origin. Little is known, however, about what happens to them on that return journey, on arrival in the country to which they are deported, and during the weeks and months that follow. The articles in this mini-feature examine four cases: failed asylum seekers deported to the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sri Lanka and Read More

Migration Italy and Germany Step Up Measures to Deter Asylum Seekers

 Migration Italy and Germany Step Up Measures to Deter Asylum Seekers (IRIN News, Jan. 13, 2017) Those who thought Europe’s refugee “crisis” was over were reminded this week that tens of thousands of refugees remain stranded in Greece and the Balkans. Images of refugee tents shrouded in snow on the Greek islands have sparked outrage about the lack of adequate shelter, and scorn has been poured on the Greek government for keeping refugees in such miserable conditions. But others have Read More

Expulsion or Imprisonment? Criminal Law Sanctions for Breaching an Entry Ban in the Light of Crimmigration Law

Expulsion or Imprisonment? Criminal Law Sanctions for Breaching an Entry Ban in the Light of Crimmigration Law (Jim Waasdorp & Aniel Pahladsing, Bergen Journal of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice • Volume 4, Issue 2, 2016, pp. 247-266) At EU-level, the use of substantive criminal law as a response to illegal migration is materialised by both the EU legislator and the Member States individually. EU involvement in criminalizing illegal migration takes place in a twofold manner: directly, through harmonization of national Read More

Regulating the Human Supply Chain

Regulating the Human Supply Chain (Gordan 2017) Gordon, Jennifer. 2017. “Regulating the Human Supply Chain.” Iowa Law Review 102 (2): 445+. https://ilr.law.uiowa.edu/print/volume-102-issue-2/regulating-the-human-supply-chain/. Legal scholarship has failed to take note of the increasing impact of recruitment intermediaries on the rule of law in the United States, and on the regulation of employment in U.S. low-wage labor markets in particular.  This Article fills that gap for forming a novel conceptual framing of migrant recruitment as a “human supply chain.”  It builds on this Read More

Post-Deportation Risks: People Face Insecurity and Threats After Forced Returns

Post-Deportation Risks: People Face Insecurity and Threats After Forced Returns (Maybritt Jill Alpes & Ninna Nyberg Sørensen, Danish Institute for Policy Studies Policy Brief, November 2016) This brief takes a look at the risks migrants and rejected asylum seekers face when they’re forcibly returned to their point of origin. The text’s authors specifically argue that forced returns have become unduly criminalized and expose returnees to economic deprivation and psychosocial harm, often at the hands of predatory state agents.

Tackling the Global Refugee Crisis: From Shirking to Sharing Responsibility

Tackling the Global Refugee Crisis: From Shirking to Sharing Responsibility (Amnesty International, Oct. 2016) On 19 September 2016 the United Nations (UN) General Assembly collectively, and spectacularly, failed the 21 million refugees of this world. The “High-level Summit to address large movements of refugees and migrants” was to address the global refugee crisis, a crisis in which, daily, millions fleeing war and persecution in countries like Syria, South Sudan, Myanmar and Iraq suffer intolerable misery and human rights violations. World Read More

Self-perceived Health and Quality of Life Among Azorean Deportees: A Cross Sectional Descriptive Study

Self-perceived Health and Quality of Life Among Azorean Deportees: A Cross Sectional Descriptive Study (Maryellen D. Brisbois, Kristen A. Sethares, Helena Oliveira Silva, Helder Rocha Pereira, SpringerPlus, 2016) Background Immigration policies can cause significant public health consequences, posing detrimental social and health effects for migrants, their families and communities. Migrants often face obstacles to health due to access, discrimination, language and cultural barriers, legal status, economic difficulties, social isolation, and fear of deportation. The process of deportation has become more Read More

Documenting the Migration Crisis in the Mediterranean: Spaces of Transit, Migration Management and Migrant Agency

Documenting the Migration Crisis in the Mediterranean: Spaces of Transit, Migration Management and Migrant Agency (Leonie Ansems, Elspeth Guild and Sergio Carrera, CEPS Paper in Liberty and Security in Europe (2016)). This article sets out the main findings of the research project Documenting the Humanitarian Migration Crisis in the Mediterranean, which maps migration trajectories and transit points across Europe in order to develop a humanitarian response to the Mediterranean migration ‘crisis’. On their long journeys, people seeking refuge in Europe pass Read More

Safe and Voluntary Refugee Repatriation: From Principle to Practice

Safe and Voluntary Refugee Repatriation: From Principle to Practice (2016, Jeff Crisp & Katy Long) The article discusses the principles of voluntariness, safety, and dignity in the context of refugee repatriation. It begins by setting out the applicable legal framework, and discusses how that framework has been elaborated upon and refined since 1951. The article then discusses how the principles of voluntariness, safety, and dignity have, in practice, been applied (or, in a few unfortunate cases, ignored). After noting that Read More

Rebuilding Self and Country: Deportee Reintegration in Jamaica

Rebuilding Self and Country: Deportee Reintegration in Jamaica (Bernard Headley and Dragan Milovanovic, 2016, Migration Policy Institute) More than 45,000 Jamaicans were deported from abroad between 2000 and 2014, primarily from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada. Each month these countries return more than 100 Jamaicans on average to a nation grappling with persistently high levels of crime and poverty. Deportees are not greeted with open arms upon return, in part due to a widely held view in Read More

Is There Any Blood on My Hands? Deportation as a Crime of International Law

Is There Any Blood on My Hands? Deportation as a Crime of International Law (Chetail 2016) Chetail, Vincent. 2016. “Is There Any Blood on My Hands? Deportation as a Crime of International Law.” Leiden Journal of International Law 29 (3): 917–43. doi:10.1017/S0922156516000376. The present article revisits international criminal law as a tool for sanctioning the most patent abuses against migrants. Although deportation is traditionally considered as an attribute of the state inherent to its territorial sovereignty, this prerogative may degenerate Read More

Migrant Detention in the European Union: A Thriving Business

Migrant Detention in the European Union: A Thriving Business; Outsourcing and privatisation of migrant detention. (MIGREUROP, 2016). What does a migrant cost per day? That question is spotlighted if migration policy is determined by cost-benefit calculations, rather than by the principle of humane treatment. Such a political approach is taken in many fields of public services, from education and transport to electricity and water. To offer every service at the lowest possible cost, the concept of privatization is always adopted Read More

Human Rights and the International Law Commission’s Draft Articles on the Expulsion of Aliens

Human Rights and the International Law Commission’s Draft Articles on the Expulsion of Aliens (Gerald L. Neuman, 2016) The completion of the project of the International Law Commission (ILC) on “the expulsion of aliens” marked an important stage in the development of international law relating to migration. The resulting Draft Articles on the Expulsion of Aliens reflect the joint effort of the ILC’s distinguished experts on public international law, from all regions of the world, to enunciate principles that regulate Read More

Deportation as a Global Phenomenon: Reflections on the Draft Articles on the Expulsion of Aliens

Deportation as a Global Phenomenon: Reflections on the Draft Articles on the Expulsion of Aliens (2016, Daniel Kanstroom) Critical appraisal of the International Law Commission’s Draft Articles on the Expulsion of Aliens (“Draft Articles”) demands a conceptualization of contemporary expulsion or deportation as a global phenomenon. Deportation may be functionally defined as a powerful government assertion of high stakes sanctions in low formality settings aimed at the most powerless and marginalized members of society. In the United States context, deportation Read More

Constructions of Deportability in Sweden: Refused Asylum Seekers’ Experiences in Relation to Gender, Family Life, and Reproduction

Constructions of Deportability in Sweden: Refused Asylum Seekers’ Experiences in Relation to Gender, Family Life, and Reproduction (Maja Sager, Nordic Journal of Women’s Studies, Vol. 24, 2016) Drawing on ethnographic material, this article examines how the experiences of refused asylum seekers in Sweden are shaped by migration policies, welfare policies, and gender norms. The article develops a feminist account of deportability to examine some gendered and reproductive aspects of everyday experiences of seeking asylum in Sweden. Focusing on the interview accounts Read More

Reshaping possible futures: Deportation, home and the United Kingdom

Reshaping possible futures: Deportation, home and the United Kingdom (Ines Hasselberg, Anthropology Today, Volume 32, Issue 1, February 2016 ) In this article I examine how foreign nationals in the United Kingdom (UK) envisage the possibility of a forced return to their countries of origin. Drawing on ethnographic data collected in London among foreign national offenders appealing their deportation at the Immigration Tribunal, I show how preparations for an eventual return were seldom made by those appealing deportation, even if the prospect Read More

The Flight of the Deported: Aircraft, Deportation, and Politics

The Flight of the Deported: Aircraft, Deportation, and Politics (William Walters, Geopolitics, Vol 21, Issue 2, 2016) This article calls for studies of migration, borders and deportation to bring the practices and dynamic spaces of transportation more fully into the research frame. While modern deportation is unthinkable without vehicles, transport is a black box for the interdisciplinary literature on the state-enforced movement of population. This article focuses on deportation by air and engages largely with policies and practices relating to the Read More

Rights and Reintegrating Deported Migrants for National Development: The Jamaican Model

Rights and Reintegrating Deported Migrants for National Development: The Jamaican Model (Bernard Headley & Dragan Milovanovic, Social Justice, 43.1, 2016). Each year, the US, the UK, and Canada together deport hundreds of thousands of people. Under President Barack Obama, US deportations were on track to hit a record two million by the end of 2014-nearly the same number of persons deported between 1892 and 1997 (New York Times 2013). In 2013, 50,741 persons were deported from the UK, or they Read More

The Expulsion of European Union Citizens from the Host Member State: Legal Grounds and Practice

The Expulsion of European Union Citizens from the Host Member State: Legal Grounds and Practice (Maslowski 2015) Maslowski, Solange. 2015. “The Expulsion of European Union Citizens from the Host Member State: Legal Grounds and Practice.” Central and Eastern European Migration Review 4 (2): 61–85. http://www.ceemr.uw.edu.pl/sites/default/files/CEEMR_Vol_4_No_2_Maslowski_The_Expulsion_of_European_Union_Citizens.pdf. The last decade has witnessed the development of a growing phenomenon, the expulsion of European Union (EU) citizens from a host Member State. While the EU encourages its citizens to use their fundamental right of Read More

Flights of Shame or Dignified Return? Return Flights and Post-Return Monitoring

Flights of Shame or Dignified Return? Return Flights and Post-Return Monitoring (Jari Pirjola, European Journal of Migration and Law 17(4):305-328 · November 2015) The purpose of this article is to discuss return flights in the context of international human rights standards. What are the standards that have so far been developed by international organisations and the international monitoring bodies and how these standards have been applied in practice during return flights? Besides evolving standards, the paper discusses unclarities that need to be addressed Read More

Airport Casualties: Non-Admission and Return Risks at Times of Internalized/Externalized Border Controls

Airport Casualties: Non-Admission and Return Risks at Times of Internalized/Externalized Border Controls (2015, Maybritt Jill Alpes) This article analyzes what can happen to forced returnees upon arrival in their country of nationality. Subjective configurations of state agents in the Global South have created return risks, which in turn transform subjectivities of post-colonial citizens. The article contributes to this Special Issue by tracing repercussions of the externalization and internalization of border controls. In the case of Cameroon, these connections have resulted in Read More

Cutting Genuine Links: A Normative Analysis of Citizenship Deprivation

Cutting Genuine Links: A Normative Analysis of Citizenship Deprivation (Rainer Baubock & Vesco Paskalev, 30 Geo. Immigr. L.J. 47, 2015) Most critical analyses assess citizenship deprivation policies against international human rights and domestic rule of law standards, such as prevention of statelessness, non-arbitrariness with regard to justifications and judicial remedies, or non-discrimination between different categories of citizens. This paper considers citizenship deprivation policies instead from a political theory perspective—how deprivation policies reflect specific conceptions of political community. We distinguish four normative Read More

Humane and Dignified? Migrants’ Experience of Living in a ‘State of Deportability’ in Sweden

Humane and Dignified? Migrants’ Experience of Living in a ‘State of Deportability’ in Sweden (Daniela Debono, et al., 2015) The return of irregular migrants to their country of origin is an integral part of the European Union’s strategy for managing international migration. As we write, in June 2015, the European Commissioner, Dimitris Avramopoulos, in reaction to the lack of agreement between Member States on a comprehensive European Agenda on Migration and to increasing irregular migrant flows through the southern borders, Read More

Post-Deportation Risks: Criminalized Departure and Risks for Returnees in Countries of Origin

Post-Deportation Risks: Criminalized Departure and Risks for Returnees in Countries of Origin (2015, Charlotte Blondel, Marie Conciatori, Nausicaa Preiss, Meritxell Sayos Monras, Suzanne Seiller, Janine Uhlmannsiek ) Following the recent crisis in the Mediterranean Sea, the European Commission presented on May 15th 2015 a new European Agenda centred on the present challenges of global migration. As the High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the Commission stated, “with this agenda we confirm and Read More

Deportation Stigma and Re-migration

Deportation Stigma and Re-migration (Liza Schuster & Nassim Majidi, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Volume 41, Number 4, 21 March 2015, pp. 635-652(18)) Many, if not most, of those who are forcibly expelled from the country to which they have migrated will not settle in the country to which they have been returned but will leave again. A recent article examined some of the reasons why this should be so. It was argued that in addition to the factors that Read More

The case against removal: Jus noci and harm in deportation practice

The case against removal: Jus noci and harm in deportation practice (Barbara Buckinx & Alexandra Filindra, Migr Stud (2015) 3 (3): 393-416) The United States removes from its territory almost 400,000 noncitizens annually—Germany removes about 50,000 people each year, France 26,000, and Canada 12,000. In this article, we focus on the impact of removal, and we argue that many individuals—often those who are best integrated in their countries of long-term residence—will suffer significant physical, psychological, economic, and social harm upon their return. Read More

Deciphering Deportation Practices Across the Global North

Deciphering Deportation Practices Across the Global North (Weber 2014) Weber, Leanne. 2014. “Deciphering Deportation Practices Across the Global North.” In The Routledge Handbook on Crime and Migration, edited by S. Pickering and J. Ham, 1sted., 155–78. Abingdon Oxon, UK: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203385562.ch10. The increasing use of deportation appears to be a universal phenomenon across the Global North, driven by uncertainties arising from globalization and the ubiquity of ‘the governmentality of unease’ (Bigo 2002). However, against this broad backdrop of apparent uniformity, Read More

The Forgotten Deported: A Declaration on the Rights of Expelled and Deported Persons

The Forgotten Deported: A Declaration on the Rights of Expelled and Deported Persons (2015, Daniel Kanstroom & Jessica Chicco) This article considers a “Declaration on the Rights of Expelled and Deported Persons.” Drafted by the authors with significant input from a wide array of scholars, activists, judges, and others, this Declaration, reprinted in Appendix A, responds to what has become in recent years a major worldwide phenomenon: the deportation (also known as removal or expulsion) of large numbers of noncitizens. Read More

Citizenship Revocation, the Privilege to Have Rights and the Production of the Alien

Citizenship Revocation, the Privilege to Have Rights and the Production of the Alien (Audrey Macklin, 40:1 Queen’s LJ, 2014) Since 9/11, Western governments have redefined what it means to be a citizen. Though citizenship is often thought of as an inalienable right, the emergence of the “homegrown ” terrorist has called into question whether certain citizens deserve the protection that citizenship status provides. Although international treaties preclude a country from rendering a person stateless, recent legislative and executive action in the Read More

Assessment of the Risk of Refoulement Under Article 3 ECHR in Cases of Persons Returning to Somalia

Assessment of the Risk of Refoulement Under Article 3 ECHR in Cases of Persons Returning to Somalia (Daan Bes, et al. 2014) In 2013 the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) communicated to the Dutch Government several complaints against the Netherlands of Somali applicants who claim that their expulsion to their country of origin would violate Article 3 of the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR). In the context of these complaints the ECtHR referred questions to the Dutch Government on: Read More

Preventing irregular migration: restrictions on movement, mental injury and breach of fundamental rights

Preventing irregular migration: restrictions on movement, mental injury and breach of fundamental rights (Zia Akhtar, International Journal of Public Law and Policy, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2014) The legal regime has become increasingly strict for those facing deportation as ‘illegal’ migrants in both the UK and the USA. The UK Borders, Citizenship and Immigration Act 2009 has created an overlap between criminal and the seeker of asylum or refugee. It has led to the overstayers’ confinement without safeguards for their age Read More

Monitoring the Return of Irregular Migrants and Failed Asylum Seekers by Land, Sea and Air

Monitoring the Return of Irregular Migrants and Failed Asylum Seekers by Land, Sea and Air (2013, Anne-Mari Virolainen – Committee on Migration, Refugees and Displaced Persons – Council of Europe)  Following a steady increase in the number of forced returns of irregular migrants and failed asylum seekers, and in view of the risk of ill-treatment during these forced returns, there is an urgent need to draw up common standards on removal procedures by land, sea and air and on monitoring these Read More

Unsafe Return II

Unsafe Return II (2013, Catherine Ramos) This report has been prepared in order to continue to inform the Home Office, FCO and government departments such as the Country of Origin Information Service of new information relating to the post return experience of Congolese returnees to DRC. Since 2010 Home Office departments have been provided with evidence in order to inform policy, as recommended by the Independent Asylum Commission. This included the report Unsafe Return – Refoulement of Congolese asylum seekers’ Read More

Defining difference: the role of immigrant generation and race in American and British immigration studies

Defining Difference: The Role of Immigrant Generation and Race in American and British Immigration Studies (Mary Waters, Ethnic and Racial Studies: Vol 37, No 1 (2014)). This article reviews the ways in which Britain and the USA classify and analyse the integration of immigrants and their descendants. While both societies recognize racial differences in their official statistics and in the academic analyses of change over time, the USA tends to classify immigrants and their descendants by immigrant generation much more than Read More

Is Deportation a Form of Forced Migration?

Is Deportation a Form of Forced Migration? (Matthew J. Gibney, Refugee Survey Quarterly (2013) 32 (2): 116-129). In this article I explore why, despite the fact that it seems to represent the epitome of forced migration, deportation (the quotidian practice of lawful expulsion) is generally ignored by forced migration scholars. My key claim is that deportation is implicitly deemed a legitimate form of forced migration. Forced migration is not simply a descriptive term; it is also typically an evaluative one. Read More

What Happens Post-Deportation? The Experience of Deported Afghans

What Happens Post-Deportation? The Experience of Deported Afghans (2013, Liza Schuster and Nassim Majidi) Deportation, understood as the physical removal of someone against their will from the territory of one state to that of another, has moved to the forefront of academic and policy agendas. Although there is a growing literature on legislation and policy, there is very little in-depth data on what happens post-deportation. In this article, we examine possible post-deportation outcomes. We argue that, whatever reasons existed for Read More

Procedural Due Process in the Expulsion of Aliens Under International, United States, and European Union Law: A Comparative Analysis

Procedural Due Process in the Expulsion of Aliens Under International, United States, and European Union Law: A Comparative Analysis (Won Kidane, 27 Emory Int’l L. Rev. 285 (2013) Liberal democracies aspire to respect minimum standards of individual liberty and due process to all. They structurally limit their powers with respect to how they treat all persons – including noncitizens, also known as “aliens.” Nonetheless, the exact scope and nature of the limitations imposed by international and domestic legal regimes for Read More

Nowhere to Run: Iraqi Asylum Seekers in the UK

Nowhere to Run: Iraqi Asylum Seekers in the UK (Helen Hintjens, Race Class October-December 2012, vol. 54 no. 2 88-99) This article, covering the period 2003–2010, is concerned with those Iraqis whose asylum claims in the UK have been rejected in recent years and who have found ‘nowhere to run’. A deterrence-based UK immigration regime has undermined many of their basic rights since the start of the war. And despite wide public knowledge about the dangers of return to Iraq, failed Read More

Avoiding Refoulement: The Need to Monitor Deported Refused Asylum Seekers

Avoiding Refoulement: The Need to Monitor Deported Refused Asylum Seekers (2012, Leana Podeszfa & Charlotte Manicom) Although the fate of deported asylum seekers remains largely undocumented, a number of organisations have compiled evidence that the human rights of refused asylum seekers are being violated upon return. Deportees are often arrested, put in prison, and tortured. Some are charged with treason; some disappear altogether. Using the example of the United Kingdom, this article argues that such deportations amount to refoulement, and Read More

The renaissance of non-refoulement? The Othman (Abu Qatada) decision of the European Court of Human Rights

The renaissance of non-refoulement? The Othman (Abu Qatada) decision of the European Court of Human Rights (Christopher Michaelsen, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 61(3), 2012) On 17 January 2012 the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) handed down its judgment in Othman (Abu Qatada) v United Kingdom.1 Abu Qatada, a radical Muslim cleric once described as ‘Osama bin Laden’s right-hand man in Europe’, was convicted in absentia in Jordan for various terrorist offences.2 He alleges, however, that part of the evidence Read More

Deportation and the Micropolitics of Exclusion: The Rise of Removals from the UK to Sri Lanka

Deportation and the Micropolitics of Exclusion: The Rise of Removals from the UK to Sri Lanka (2012, Michael Collyer) The forced removal of foreign nationals has been a relatively uncommon occurrence in liberal democracies, at least since the 2nd World War. This can be explained by both the inherent violence of this process, which raises widespread public opposition, and by the geopolitical difficulties it raises, as there must be agreement of both countries concerned. In recent years these problems appear Read More

The Family Rights of European Children: Expulsion of Non-European Parents

The Family Rights of European Children: Expulsion of Non-European Parents (Gareth T. Davies, 2012) In Ruiz Zambrano and Dereci the European Court of Justice found that EU law prohibits expulsion of a family member of a Union citizen if that expulsion would force the Union citizen to leave the Union too. This is of particular importance where the Union citizen is a child, since children are particularly dependent upon their parents and perhaps cannot be expected to remain behind without Read More

Unsafe Return: Refoulement of Congolese Asylum Seekers

Unsafe Return: Refoulement of Congolese Asylum Seekers (2011, Catherine Ramos) On 26th February 2007 a Congolese client of Justice First was forcibly removed from the UK on a charter flight to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), where he arrived on 27th February with his wife and children. After interrogation, the family was allowed to leave the airport. In the early hours of 28th February the client was arrested at the address his wife had given to the authorities Read More

The Reintegration of Criminal Deportees in Society

The Reintegration of Criminal Deportees in Society (2010, Christopher A.D. Charles) This article deals with reintegrating deportees in Jamaica. There is the belief among the citizenry, the media, and the government that the deportees are fueling the crime rate. Jamaica has one of the highest homicide rates in the world. Some 15,618 deportees were sent to Jamaica from various countries between 2005 and 2009. The purveyors of the deportee–crime link ignore the influence of garrison communities on the crime rate which Read More