Voluntary and Forced Returns to Afghanistan in 2016/17: Trends, statistics and experiences

Voluntary and Forced Returns to Afghanistan in 2016/17: Trends, statistics and experiences (Thomas Ruttig & Jelena Bjelica, Afghanistan Analysts Network, May 2017)   While hundreds of thousands of Afghans sought protection in Europe throughout 2015/16, an increasing number have been returning to Afghanistan, both voluntarily and involuntarily. The number of voluntary returnees from Europe picked up significantly throughout 2016, with additional returns in the first four months of 2017, reaching a total figure of over 8,000. By contrast, the number Read More

Separated Families: Barriers to Family Reunification After Deportation

Separated Families: Barriers to Family Reunification After Deportation (Deborah A. Boehm, Journal on Migration and Human Security, 2017) This paper outlines the complexities — and unlikelihood — of keeping families together when facing, or in the aftermath of deportation. After discussing the context that limits or prevents reunification among immigrant families more generally, I outline several of the particular ways that families are divided when a member is deported. Drawing on case studies from longitudinal ethnographic research in Mexico and Read More

Trauma and Psychological Distress in Latino Citizen Children Following Parental Detention and Deportation

Trauma and Psychological Distress in Latino Citizen Children Following Parental Detention and Deportation (Lisseth Rojas-Flores, Mari L. Clements, J. Hwang Koo, and Judy London, Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Vol 9(3), May 2017 The mental health impact of parental detention and deportation on citizen children is a topic of increasing concern. Forced parent– child separation and parental loss are potentially traumatic events (PTEs) with adverse effects on children’s mental health. Objective: This study examines posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and Read More

The Wrongs of Unlawful Immigration

The Wrongs of Unlawful Immigration (Ana Aliverti, Criminal Law and Philosophy, Vol, 11, Issue 2, pp 375–391, June 2017) For too long, criminal law scholars overlooked immigration-based offences. Claims that these offences are not ‘true crimes’ or are a ‘mere camouflage’ to pursue non-criminal law aims deflect attention from questions concerning the limits of criminalization and leave unchallenged contradictions at the heart of criminal law theory. My purpose in this paper is to examine these offences through some of the basic tenets of Read More

Left Behind: The Dying Principle of Family Reunification Under Immigration Law

Left Behind: The Dying Principle of Family Reunification Under Immigration Law (Anita Ortiz Maddali, 50 U. Mich. J. L. Reform 107 (2016)) A key underpinning of modern U.S. immigration law is family reunification, but in practice it can privilege certain families and certain members within families. Drawing on legislative history, this Article examines the origins and objectives of the principle of family reunification in immigration law and relies on legal scholarship and sociological and anthropological research to reveal how contemporary immigration Read More

Citizens-in-Waiting, Deportees-in-Waiting: Power, Temporality, and Suffering in the U.S. Asylum System

Citizens-in-Waiting, Deportees-in-Waiting: Power, Temporality, and Suffering in the U.S. Asylum System (Bridget M. Haas, Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology, Vol 45, Issue 1, March 2017) This article explores how the interrelationship of power and temporality shapes the lived experiences and subjectivities of political asylum claimants in the United States. By lodging an asylum claim, migrants enter into a system that will, in effect, produce them as legitimate refugees deserving of protection or as illegitimate, “bogus” asylum seekers in need of Read More

Back to Square One: Socioeconomic Integration of Deported Migrants

Back to Square One: Socioeconomic Integration of Deported Migrants (Anda M. David, International Migration Review, Vol. 51, Issue 1, 2017) This paper addresses the issue of socioeconomic integration of forced return migrants, focusing on the Maghreb countries. Starting from the hypothesis that the return has to be prepared, I tested whether a disruption in the migration cycle (such as deportation) increases the individual’s vulnerability and affects his integration from both a structural and sociocultural point of view, using the 2006 Migration de Read More

The EU-Turkey deal: what happens to people who return to Turkey?

The EU-Turkey deal: what happens to people who return to Turkey? (Sevda Tunaboylu and Jill Alpes, Forced Migration Review, 2017)   On 18th March 2016, Turkey and the European Union (EU) made a joint statement. Political leaders agreed to the return to Turkey of people who had crossed to the Greek islands through irregular channels and also agreed to prevent the arrival of new asylum seekers via sea or land – in exchange for the liberalisation of EU visa requirements Read More

Judging Immigration Equity: Deportation and Proportionality in the Supreme Court

Judging Immigration Equity: Deportation and Proportionality in the Supreme Court (Jason A. Cade, U.C. Davis Law Review, Vol. 50, Feb. 2017) Though it has not directly said so, the United States Supreme Court cares about proportionality in the deportation system. Or at least it thinks someone in the system should be considering the justifiability of removal decisions. As this Article demonstrates, the Court’s jurisprudence across a range of substantive and procedural challenges over the last fifteen years increases or preserves structural opportunities Read More

Post-Deportation Risks and Monitoring Mini-Feature

Post-Deportation Risks and Monitoring Mini-Feature (Forced Migration Review, vol. 54, February 2017) People whose application for asylum has been refused are often deported, usually to their country of origin. Little is known, however, about what happens to them on that return journey, on arrival in the country to which they are deported, and during the weeks and months that follow. The articles in this mini-feature examine four cases: failed asylum seekers deported to the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sri Lanka and Read More

God Brought You Home – Deportation as Moral Governance in the Lives of Nigerian Sex Worker Migrants

God Brought You Home – Deportation as Moral Governance in the Lives of Nigerian Sex Worker Migrants (Sine Plambech, Journal Of Ethnic And Migration Studies, 2017) Set in Nigeria among deported sex worker migrants and the institutions that seek to intervene in their migration, this article explores how deportation serves the dual function as a tool for migration governance as well as a tool for moral governance. Deportation has often been analysed from a Global North perspective and as a technology Read More

Migration Italy and Germany Step Up Measures to Deter Asylum Seekers

 Migration Italy and Germany Step Up Measures to Deter Asylum Seekers (IRIN News, Jan. 13, 2017) Those who thought Europe’s refugee “crisis” was over were reminded this week that tens of thousands of refugees remain stranded in Greece and the Balkans. Images of refugee tents shrouded in snow on the Greek islands have sparked outrage about the lack of adequate shelter, and scorn has been poured on the Greek government for keeping refugees in such miserable conditions. But others have Read More

Criminal Justice in an Era of Mass Deportation: Reforms from California

Criminal Justice in an Era of Mass Deportation: Reforms from California (Ingrid V. Eagly, 20 New Criminal Law Review 12 (2017 Forthcoming)). After a sustained period of hypercriminalization, the United States criminal justice system is undergoing reform. Congress has reduced federal sentencing for drug crimes, prison growth is slowing, and some states are even closing prisons. Low-level crimes have been removed from criminal law books, and attention is beginning to focus on long-neglected issues such as bail and criminal court fines. Read More

Mass Deportations Would Impoverish US Families and Create Immense Social Costs

Mass Deportations Would Impoverish US Families and Create Immense Social Costs (Robert Warren & Donald Kerwin, Center for Migration Studies, 2017) This paper provides a statistical portrait of the US undocumented population, with an emphasis on the social and economic condition of mixed-status households – that is, households that contain a US citizen and an undocumented resident. It is based primarily on data compiled by the Center for Migration Studies (CMS). Major findings include the following: There were 3.3 million mixed-status households Read More

Returning with Nothing but an Empty Bag: Topographies of Social Hope after Deportation to Ghana

Returning with Nothing but an Empty Bag: Topographies of Social Hope after Deportation to Ghana (Nauja Kleist), chapter in “Hope and Uncertainty in Contemporary African Migration” Nauja Kleist and Dorte Thorsen (eds.), New York and London: Web: Routledge (2017). This chapter addresses post-deportation life in Ghana, discussing two issues: first, social and economic repercusssions of deportation for deportees, their families and local community; second how high-risk migration projects continues to constitute a pathway of hope for some deportees. Based on longitudinal Read More

Expulsion or Imprisonment? Criminal Law Sanctions for Breaching an Entry Ban in the Light of Crimmigration Law

Expulsion or Imprisonment? Criminal Law Sanctions for Breaching an Entry Ban in the Light of Crimmigration Law (Jim Waasdorp & Aniel Pahladsing, Bergen Journal of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice • Volume 4, Issue 2, 2016, pp. 247-266) At EU-level, the use of substantive criminal law as a response to illegal migration is materialised by both the EU legislator and the Member States individually. EU involvement in criminalizing illegal migration takes place in a twofold manner: directly, through harmonization of national Read More

Deported with No Possessions

Deported with No Possessions: The Mishandling of Migrants’ Personal Belongings by CBP and ICE (Walter Ewing and Guillermo Cantor, American Immigration Council, 2016) U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) have a serious and longstanding problem with handling the personal belongings of detained migrants in their custody. Too often, some or all of a detainee’s belongings are lost, destroyed, or stolen by the immigration-enforcement agents entrusted with their care. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Read More

Migration and Belonging: Narratives from a Highland Town

Migration and Belonging: Narratives from a Highland Town (collection of blog posts, introduction by Lauren Heidbrink, 2016) Youth Circulations is honored to showcase the important contributions of Guatemalan scholars in a new multilingual series entitled “Migration and Belonging: Narratives from a Highland Town.” This 7-part series emerges from a longitudinal study on the deportation and social reintegration of youth in Guatemala and Southern Mexico. With generous funding from the National Science Foundation, an interdisciplinary team conducted ethnographic and survey research Read More

Post-Deportation Risks: People Face Insecurity and Threats After Forced Returns

Post-Deportation Risks: People Face Insecurity and Threats After Forced Returns (Maybritt Jill Alpes & Ninna Nyberg Sørensen, Danish Institute for Policy Studies Policy Brief, November 2016) This brief takes a look at the risks migrants and rejected asylum seekers face when they’re forcibly returned to their point of origin. The text’s authors specifically argue that forced returns have become unduly criminalized and expose returnees to economic deprivation and psychosocial harm, often at the hands of predatory state agents.

Feeling like a citizen, living as a denizen: Deportees’ sense of belonging

Feeling like a citizen, living as a denizen: Deportees’ sense of belonging (Tanya Golash-Boza, American Behavioral Scientist, 60(13), 2016) The implementation of restrictive immigration laws in 1997 in the United States has led to the deportation of hundreds of thousands of legal permanent residents—denizens who had made the United States their home. Mass deportations of denizens have given renewed importance to territorial belonging and legal citizenship for theories of citizenship, a relatively neglected area of scholarship in this field. This Read More

Home Sweet Home? Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador’s Role in a Deepening Refugee Crisis

Home Sweet Home? Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador’s Role in a Deepening Refugee Crisis (2016, Amnesty International) As violence has worsened and poverty and inequality remain prevalent, the Central American governments of Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador, also known as the Northern Triangle, are doubly failing to protect their citizens: socioeconomic conditions remain poor and an increasingly violent environment permeates every corner of their countries, which causes people to flee in record numbers, but governments are failing to provide protection Read More

Tackling the Global Refugee Crisis: From Shirking to Sharing Responsibility

Tackling the Global Refugee Crisis: From Shirking to Sharing Responsibility (Amnesty International, Oct. 2016) On 19 September 2016 the United Nations (UN) General Assembly collectively, and spectacularly, failed the 21 million refugees of this world. The “High-level Summit to address large movements of refugees and migrants” was to address the global refugee crisis, a crisis in which, daily, millions fleeing war and persecution in countries like Syria, South Sudan, Myanmar and Iraq suffer intolerable misery and human rights violations. World Read More

Self-perceived Health and Quality of Life Among Azorean Deportees: A Cross Sectional Descriptive Study

Self-perceived Health and Quality of Life Among Azorean Deportees: A Cross Sectional Descriptive Study (Maryellen D. Brisbois, Kristen A. Sethares, Helena Oliveira Silva, Helder Rocha Pereira, SpringerPlus, 2016) Background Immigration policies can cause significant public health consequences, posing detrimental social and health effects for migrants, their families and communities. Migrants often face obstacles to health due to access, discrimination, language and cultural barriers, legal status, economic difficulties, social isolation, and fear of deportation. The process of deportation has become more Read More

Documenting the Migration Crisis in the Mediterranean: Spaces of Transit, Migration Management and Migrant Agency

Documenting the Migration Crisis in the Mediterranean: Spaces of Transit, Migration Management and Migrant Agency (Leonie Ansems, Elspeth Guild and Sergio Carrera, CEPS Paper in Liberty and Security in Europe (2016)). This article sets out the main findings of the research project Documenting the Humanitarian Migration Crisis in the Mediterranean, which maps migration trajectories and transit points across Europe in order to develop a humanitarian response to the Mediterranean migration ‘crisis’. On their long journeys, people seeking refuge in Europe pass Read More

Mathis, Descamps, and the End of Crime-Based Deportation

Mathis, Descamps, and the End of Crime-Based Deportation (Kari Hong, U.C. Davis Law Review, forthcoming (2017)). The belief that immigrants are crossing the border, in the stealth of night, with nefarious desires to bring violence, crime, and drugs to the United States has long been part of the public imagination. Studies and statistics overwhelmingly establish the falsehood of this rhetoric. The facts are that non-citizens commit fewer crimes and reoffend less often than citizens. But facts do not stop the myth. Read More

Safe and Voluntary Refugee Repatriation: From Principle to Practice

Safe and Voluntary Refugee Repatriation: From Principle to Practice (2016, Jeff Crisp & Katy Long) The article discusses the principles of voluntariness, safety, and dignity in the context of refugee repatriation. It begins by setting out the applicable legal framework, and discusses how that framework has been elaborated upon and refined since 1951. The article then discusses how the principles of voluntariness, safety, and dignity have, in practice, been applied (or, in a few unfortunate cases, ignored). After noting that Read More

Estadísticas Migratorias, Síntesis 2016

Estadísticas Migratorias, Síntesis 2016 (Secretaría de Gobernación – Estados Unidos de México) La creciente movilidad de personas a nivel mundial demanda la conformación de estadísticas sistematizadas, den cuenta de los distintos ujos de personas que arriban a México y parten de él por diversos motivos y en diferentes condiciones migratorias, así como de los que deciden establecerse en el país. Con base en los registros administrativos generados en los diversos puntos de internación, ocinas y estaciones migratorias de las delegaciones Read More

Rebuilding Self and Country: Deportee Reintegration in Jamaica

Rebuilding Self and Country: Deportee Reintegration in Jamaica (Bernard Headley and Dragan Milovanovic, 2016, Migration Policy Institute) More than 45,000 Jamaicans were deported from abroad between 2000 and 2014, primarily from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada. Each month these countries return more than 100 Jamaicans on average to a nation grappling with persistently high levels of crime and poverty. Deportees are not greeted with open arms upon return, in part due to a widely held view in Read More

Traumatic Events and Symptoms Among Mexican Deportees in a Border Community

Traumatic Events and Symptoms Among Mexican Deportees in a Border Community (Juan M. Peña, et. al, 2016, Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2017) Research on traumatic events experienced among Mexicans deported from the United States is scant. Using clinical interviews, this study assessed the frequency of traumatic events and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 47 Mexican deportees in a U.S.-Mexico border community. The majority of participants (98%) reported having experienced one or more Read More

‘[Take from Us Our] Wretched Refuse’: The Deportation of America’s Adoptees

‘[Take from Us Our] Wretched Refuse’: The Deportation of America’s Adoptees (DeLeith Duke Gossett, University of Cincinnati Law Review, Vol. 85, No. 1, 2017) Foreign-born children adopted by American citizens are subject to U.S. immigration law. Because the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution guarantees American citizenship only to “persons born or naturalized in the United States”, previous immigration law required that children born abroad and adopted by American parents undergo a separate naturalization process before the children received U.S. citizenship. Read More

Fast-Track to Injustice: Rapidly Deporting the Mentally Ill

Fast-Track to Injustice:  Rapidly Deporting the Mentally Ill (Aimee L. Mayer-Salins, 14 Cardozo Pub. L. Pol’y & Ethics J. 545, 2016) This Article contends that DHS should afford individuals with mental illness additional procedural protections in fast-track removal proceedings. The Article begins with an overview of these fast-track procedures, including a discussion of the limited procedural protections available. The Article highlights the lack of special procedural protections for individuals suffering from mental illnesses. The Article then contrasts this absence of special Read More

Migración en Tránsito por México: Rostro de una Crisis Humanitaria Internacional

Migración en Tránsito por México: Rostro de una Crisis Humanitaria Internacional (2016, Red de Documentación de Organizaciones Defensoras de Migrantes (REDODEM)) El fenómeno de la movilidad humana sigue siendo uno de los rasgos distintivos de las dinámicas globales. Si bien esto es parte de una dinámica prácticamente generalizada en el mundo, aquí nos referimos a aquellas migraciones que son fruto de la prevalencia de la desigualdad en diferentes regiones del planeta. Aquellas que por acción u omisión de los Estados Read More

Detained, Deceived, and Deported: Experiences of Recently Deported Central American Families

Detained, Deceived, and Deported: Experiences of Recently Deported Central American Families (Guillermo Cantor and Tory Johnson, American Immigration Council, 2016) Over the last few years, the escalation of violence in Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala (collectively known as the Northern Triangle of Central America) has reached dramatic levels. thousands of women and their children have fled and arrived in the United states with the hope of finding protection. But for many of them, their attempts to escape merely resulted in Read More

Actually, Padilla Does Apply to Undocumented Defendants

Actually, Padilla Does Apply to Undocumented Defendants (Daniel A. Horwitz, Harvard Latino Law Review, Vol. 19., Spring 2016.) Padilla does apply to undocumented defendants. For the reasons provided in this Article, the reasoning of those authorities that have reached a contrary conclusion suffers from four fatal flaws. This Article proceeds in six parts. Part I summarizes the authorities that have concluded that Padilla does not apply to undocumented defendants. Part II explains why this conclusion neglects the legal and practical reality Read More

El Contexto Regional del Desplazamiento y la Migración Forzada en Centroamérica, México y Estados Unidos

El Contexto Regional del Desplazamiento y la Migración Forzada en Centroamérica, México y Estados Unidos (2016, Consejeria en Proyectos para Refugiados Latinoamericanos / Project Counselling Service-PCS) La movilidad humana en los países de Centroamérica y México en su tránsito hacia los Estados Unidos engloba una serie de problemáticas y desafíos para la garantía de los derechos humanos que deben ser entendidos en clave regional y transnacional. El constante e incesante flujo migratorio mixto es una expresión de la crisis humanitaria Read More

Examining an Increasingly Complex Tapestry: The Unintended Effects of the Three- and Ten-Year Unlawful Presence Bars

Examining an Increasingly Complex Tapestry: The Unintended Effects of the Three- and Ten-Year Unlawful Presence Bars (Kristi Lundstrom, 76 Law & Contemp. Prob. 389, 2013) In 1996, Congress passed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), focusing immigration law and policy on greater enforcement and centering the enforcement system around departures, in an attempt to deter immigrants from overstaying their visas. One major enforcement tool instituted by IIRIRA was the creation of three-and ten-year “unlawful presence” (ULP) bars, which Read More

Desert, detention, and deportation: Mexican women’s descriptions of migration stressors and sources of strength

Desert, detention, and deportation: Mexican women’s descriptions of migration stressors and sources of strength (Ruth Ann Belknap, Health Care for Women International, 37 (9), 2016) I analyzed interviews ( n = 10) of women recently deported from the United States of America to Mexico, exploring what women experienced immediately after deportation. The women who were residing in a short-term shelter in Nogales, Mexico, described their greatest stressors and sources of strength. Women identified the border crossing experience, apprehension, detention, and family Read More

Human Rights and the International Law Commission’s Draft Articles on the Expulsion of Aliens

Human Rights and the International Law Commission’s Draft Articles on the Expulsion of Aliens (Gerald L. Neuman, 2016) The completion of the project of the International Law Commission (ILC) on “the expulsion of aliens” marked an important stage in the development of international law relating to migration. The resulting Draft Articles on the Expulsion of Aliens reflect the joint effort of the ILC’s distinguished experts on public international law, from all regions of the world, to enunciate principles that regulate Read More

Deportation as a Global Phenomenon: Reflections on the Draft Articles on the Expulsion of Aliens

Deportation as a Global Phenomenon: Reflections on the Draft Articles on the Expulsion of Aliens (2016, Daniel Kanstroom) Critical appraisal of the International Law Commission’s Draft Articles on the Expulsion of Aliens (“Draft Articles”) demands a conceptualization of contemporary expulsion or deportation as a global phenomenon. Deportation may be functionally defined as a powerful government assertion of high stakes sanctions in low formality settings aimed at the most powerless and marginalized members of society. In the United States context, deportation Read More

Constructions of Deportability in Sweden: Refused Asylum Seekers’ Experiences in Relation to Gender, Family Life, and Reproduction

Constructions of Deportability in Sweden: Refused Asylum Seekers’ Experiences in Relation to Gender, Family Life, and Reproduction (Maja Sager, Nordic Journal of Women’s Studies, Vol. 24, 2016) Drawing on ethnographic material, this article examines how the experiences of refused asylum seekers in Sweden are shaped by migration policies, welfare policies, and gender norms. The article develops a feminist account of deportability to examine some gendered and reproductive aspects of everyday experiences of seeking asylum in Sweden. Focusing on the interview accounts Read More

“Immigrants are Not Criminals”: Respectability, Immigration Reform, and Hyperincarceration

“Immigrants are Not Criminals”: Respectability, Immigration Reform, and Hyperincarceration (Rebecca Sharpless, Houston Law Review, 2016, Vol.53(3)) Mainstream pro-immigrant law reformers advocate for better treatment of immigrants by invoking a contrast with people convicted of a crime. This Article details the harms and limitations of a conceptual framework for immigration reform that draws its narrative force from a contrast with people—citizens and noncitizens—who have been convicted of a criminal offense and proposes an alternate approach that better aligns with racial and Read More

Reshaping possible futures: Deportation, home and the United Kingdom

Reshaping possible futures: Deportation, home and the United Kingdom (Ines Hasselberg, Anthropology Today, Volume 32, Issue 1, February 2016 ) In this article I examine how foreign nationals in the United Kingdom (UK) envisage the possibility of a forced return to their countries of origin. Drawing on ethnographic data collected in London among foreign national offenders appealing their deportation at the Immigration Tribunal, I show how preparations for an eventual return were seldom made by those appealing deportation, even if the prospect Read More

The Flight of the Deported: Aircraft, Deportation, and Politics

The Flight of the Deported: Aircraft, Deportation, and Politics (William Walters, Geopolitics, Vol 21, Issue 2, 2016) This article calls for studies of migration, borders and deportation to bring the practices and dynamic spaces of transportation more fully into the research frame. While modern deportation is unthinkable without vehicles, transport is a black box for the interdisciplinary literature on the state-enforced movement of population. This article focuses on deportation by air and engages largely with policies and practices relating to the Read More

Rights and Reintegrating Deported Migrants for National Development: The Jamaican Model

Rights and Reintegrating Deported Migrants for National Development: The Jamaican Model (Bernard Headley & Dragan Milovanovic, Social Justice, 43.1, 2016). Each year, the US, the UK, and Canada together deport hundreds of thousands of people. Under President Barack Obama, US deportations were on track to hit a record two million by the end of 2014-nearly the same number of persons deported between 1892 and 1997 (New York Times 2013). In 2013, 50,741 persons were deported from the UK, or they Read More

Post-Deportation Remedy and Windsor’s Promise

Post-Deportation Remedy and Windsor’s Promise (2016, Kate Shoemaker) Since 1996, the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) defined marriage for federal purposes as the union between a man and a woman. As same-sex marriage became legal across the United States, DOMA created a situation in which same-sex married couples could not access federal immigration benefits based on their married status. In some cases, this meant that noncitizens were removed from the United States solely because their same-sex marriages to U.S. citizens were not Read More

Reducing the Deportation’s Harm by Expanding Constitutional Protections to Functional Americans

Reducing the Deportation’s Harm by Expanding Constitutional Protections to Functional Americans (Beth Caldwell, 37 Whittier L. Rev. 355, 2016) This paper draws upon primary research conducted with deportees in Mexico to highlight the need to extend constitutional protections to deportation proceedings. Deportation is particularly cruel for those who have become integrated into American society. People are permanently separated from their spouses and children, and from the only country that they have ever considered to be their home. This experience often triggers Read More

Authorized and Unauthorized Immigrant Parents: The Impact of Legal Vulnerability on Family Contexts

Authorized and Unauthorized Immigrant Parents: The Impact of Legal Vulnerability on Family Contexts (Kalina Brabeck, Erin Sibley, & M. Brinton Lykes, Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Science, 2016). This study explores the social-ecological contexts of unauthorized immigrant families and their U.S.-born children, through examining how otherwise similarly low-income, urban, Latino immigrant families differ on the basis of the parents’ legal status and interactions with the immigration system. Drawing on social-ecological theory, variations based on parents’ legal vulnerability among exosystem-level experiences (e.g., Read More

ICE Enforcement and Removal Operations Report

ICE Enforcement and Removal Operations Report (2015, U.S. Immigration & Customs Enforcement) This report summarizes U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s (ICE) Enforcement and Removal Operations’ (ERO) Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 removal activities. ICE shares responsibility for enforcing the Nation’s immigration laws with U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). In executing its enforcement duties, ICE focuses on two core missions: 1) the identification and apprehension of criminal aliens and other priority aliens located in Read More

Stopping the Revolving Door: Reception and Reintegration Services for Central American Deportees

Stopping the Revolving Door: Reception and Reintegration Services for Central American Deportees (Victoria Rietig & Rodrigo Dominguez Villegas, Migration Policy Institute, 2016) In the past five years, hundreds of thousands of Central American migrants deported from Mexico and the United States—including tens of thousands of children—have arrived back in the Northern Triangle countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. For many deportees, the conditions upon arrival are worse than those that compelled them to leave in the first place. They and their Read More

2015 Immigration Control (Japan)

2015 Immigration Control (Japan, Immigration Bureau, Ministry of Justice, 2015) In this age of globalization, the Immigration Bureau, Ministry of Justice plays a vital role in both promoting sound international exchange by enabling foreign nationals visiting Japan for diverse reasons from various countries and regions to smoothly enter and stay in Japan and differentiating between which foreign nationals should and which foreign nationals should not be permitted to enter and stay in Japan so as to maintain the law and order Read More